Assessing the time use and payments of multipurpose community health workers for the various roles they play—a quantitative study of the Mitanin programme in India

Abstract Background

Community health workers (CHWs) are crucial human resources for health. While specialist CHWs focus on a single disease vertically, the generalist or multipurpose CHWs perform wider functions. The current study was aimed at examining the time multipurpose CHWs spend on performing their different roles. This can help in understanding the importance they attach to each role. Since CHWs in many developing countries are classified as part-time volunteers, this study also aimed to assess the adequacy of CHW payments in relation to their time use.

Methods

The study covered a well-established CHW programme in India's Chhattisgarh state. It had 71,000 multipurpose part-time CHWs known as Mitanins. Data collection involved interviews with a representative sample of 660 rural and 406 urban Mitanins. A semi-structured tool was designed and field tested. It included 26 pre-coded activities of CHWs placed under their six purposes or roles. Prompting and triangulation were used during interviews to mitigate the possibility of over-reporting of work by CHWs. The recall period was of one week. Descriptive analysis included comparison of key indicators for rural and urban Mitanins. A multi-variate linear model was used to find the determinants of CHW time-use.

Results

The rural and urban Mitanins respectively spent 25.3 and 34.8 h per week on their CHW work. Apart from location (urban), the total time spent was associated with size of population covered. The time-use was well balanced between roles of service-linkage, providing health education and curative care directly, COVID-19 related work and action on social determinants of health. More than half of their time-use was for unpaid tasks. Most of the cash-incentives were concentrated on service linkage role. The average payment earned by Mitanins was less than 60% of legal minimum wage.

Conclusion

The time-use pattern of Mitanins was not dictated by cash-incentives and their solidarity with community seemed be a key motivator. To allow wide ranging CHW action like Mitanins, the population per CHW should be decided appropriately. The considerable time multipurpose CHWs spend on their work necessitates that developing countries develop policies to comply with World Health Organisation's recommendation to pay them fairly.

Categories: Investigaciones

Coverage and equity of essential care services among stroke survivors in the Western Province of Sri Lanka: a community-based cross-sectional study

Abstract Background

Stroke survivors require continuing services to limit disability. This study assessed the coverage and equity of essential care services received during the first six months of post-stroke follow-up of stroke survivors in the Western Province of Sri Lanka.

Methods

A multidisciplinary team defined the essential post-stoke follow-up care services and agreed on a system to categorize the coverage of services as adequate or inadequate among those who were identified as needing the said service. We recruited 502 survivors of first ever stroke of any type, from 11 specialist hospitals upon discharge. Six months following discharge, trained interviewers visited their homes and assessed the coverage of essential services using a structured questionnaire.

Results

Forty-nine essential post-stroke follow-up care services were identified and categorized into six domains: monitoring of risk conditions, treatment, services to limit disabilities, services to prevent complications, lifestyle modification and supportive services. Of the recruited 502 stroke survivors, 363 (72.3%) were traced at the end of 6 months. Coverage of antiplatelet therapy was the highest (97.2% (n = 289, 95% CI 95.3- 99.1)) while referral to mental health services (3.3%, n = 12, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) and training on employment for the previously employed (2.2%, n = 4, 95% CI- 0.08–4.32), were the lowest among the six domains of care. In the sample, 59.8% (95% CI 54.76–64.48) had received an ‘adequate’ level of essential care services related to treatment while none received an ‘adequate’ level of services in the category of support services. Disaggregated service coverage by presence and type of limb paralysis within the domain of services to prevent complications, and by sex and education level within the domain of education level, show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Apart from treatment services to limit disabilities, coverage of essential care services during the post-stroke period was inadequate. There were no apparent inequities in the coverage of vast majority of services. However focused policy decisions are required to address these gaps in services.

Categories: Investigaciones

Enhancing interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education in women's health.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mon, 08/08/2022 - 05:28
This article is from the 'To The Point' series from the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee. The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of the differing yet complementary nature of interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education as well as their importance to the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology. We provide a historical perspective of how interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education have become key aspects of clinical and educational programs, enhancing both patient care and learner development. Opportunities to incorporate interprofessional education within women's health educational programs across organizations are suggested. This is a resource for medical educators, learners, and practicing clinicians from any field of medicine or any health-care profession.

Interprofessional Education and Older Adults in the Shared Virtual Classroom: Lessons Learned During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Fri, 05/08/2022 - 05:24
The current article provides an overview of an interprofessional service-learning course that became virtual in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Telehealth video technologies were used to build an intergenerational, virtual classroom and increase engagement of older adults with interdisciplinary health professional students. The virtual classroom involved group health education sessions, individualized Medicare wellness visits, and a clinical huddle. The course addressed the public health need for reliable health information during the early days of the pandemic, social connection, and meeting the educational goals for health care students and older adults in a novel virtual setting. Lessons learned for the interdisciplinary team and for engaging older adults included the need for preparation reading, team building exercises, training videos, and telehealth competency checklists. Beyond the pandemic, adoption of virtual methods enables hybrid approaches to interprofessional education and builds competencies for delivery of telehealth and computer-based visits in professional practice settings. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(8), 52-56.].

Using a theory of change in monitoring, evaluating and steering scale-up of a district-level health management strengthening intervention in Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda – lessons from the PERFORM2Scale consortium

Abstract Background

Since 2017, PERFORM2Scale, a research consortium with partners from seven countries in Africa and Europe, has steered the implementation and scale-up of a district-level health management strengthening intervention in Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. This article presents PERFORM2Scale’s theory of change (ToC) and reflections upon and adaptations of the ToC over time. The article aims to contribute to understanding the benefits and challenges of using a ToC-based approach for monitoring and evaluating the scale-up of health system strengthening interventions, because there is limited documentation of this in the literature.

Methods

The consortium held annual ToC reflections that entailed multiple participatory methods, including individual scoring exercises, country and consortium-wide group discussions and visualizations. The reflections were captured in detailed annual reports, on which this article is based.

Results

The PERFORM2Scale ToC describes how the management strengthening intervention, which targets district health management teams, was expected to improve health workforce performance and service delivery at scale, and which assumptions were instrumental to track over time. The annual ToC reflections proved valuable in gaining a nuanced understanding of how change did (and did not) happen. This helped in strategizing on actions to further steer the scale-up the intervention. It also led to adaptations of the ToC over time. Based on the annual reflections, these actions and adaptations related to: assessing the scalability of the intervention, documentation and dissemination of evidence about the effects of the intervention, understanding power relationships between key stakeholders, the importance of developing and monitoring a scale-up strategy and identification of opportunities to integrate (parts of) the intervention into existing structures and strategies.

Conclusions

PERFORM2Scale’s experience provides lessons for using ToCs to monitor and evaluate the scale-up of health system strengthening interventions. ToCs can help in establishing a common vision on intervention scale-up. ToC-based approaches should include a variety of stakeholders and require their continued commitment to reflection and learning on intervention implementation and scale-up. ToC-based approaches can help in adapting interventions as well as scale-up processes to be in tune with contextual changes and stakeholders involved, to potentially increase chances for successful scale-up.

Categories: Investigaciones

The Mentor-Mothers program in the Nigeria Department of Defense: policies, processes, and implementation

Abstract Background

Nigeria has the second largest HIV epidemic in the world and is one of the countries with the highest rates of new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. The country faces several challenges in the provision of healthcare services and coverage of Prevention of Mother to child transmission of HIV. In the Nigeria’s Department of Defense, prevention of vertically transmitted HIV infections has been given a boost by utilizing Mentor Mothers to facilitate antiretroviral compliance and retention in care. The aim of this study was to explore those processes and policies that guide the implementation of the Mentor Mothers program for PMTCT of HIV in the Department of Defense in Nigeria as no studies have examined this so far.

Methods

The descriptive, qualitative research approach was utilized. We conducted 7 key informants interviews with 7 purposively selected participants made up of 2 program Directors, 1 Doctor, 1 PMTCT focal Nurse, 1 PMTCT site coordinator, 1 Mentor Mother, and 1 patient from one each of the health facilities of the Army, Navy, Airforce and the Defence Headquarters Medical Centre. Open coding for major themes and sub-themes was done. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results

Findings revealed that the program in the Department of Defense had been modelled after the WHO and implementing partners’ guidelines. Foundational Factors; Leadership; Skill acquisition; and Service Characteristics emerged as processes guiding the implementation of the Mentor-Mothers program in the DoD. These findings supported the Mentor Mother Model, which empowers mothers living with HIV – through education and employment – to promote access to essential PMTCT services and medical care to HIV positive pregnant women.

Conclusion

We concluded that no definitive policy establishes the Mentor Mothers program in the DoD. Working with Doctors, Nurses, local & collaborating partners, and communities in which these hospitals are located, the Mentor Mothers play a pivotal role in the formation, facilitation, and implementation of the MM model to effectively decrease HIV infections in children and reduce child and maternal mortality in women and families they interact with.

Categories: Investigaciones

Can interprofessional education change students' attitudes? A case study from Lebanon.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mon, 01/08/2022 - 05:19
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration is key to improving the health of individuals and communities. It is supported by provision of Interprofessional education (IPE) which has recently emerged in the Middle East region. This study investigated changes in healthcare students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after undertaking the Interprofessional Education and Collaboration (IPEC) course. METHODS: A paper-based anonymous survey using the Interprofessional Attitude Scale (IPAS) was administered to a sample of 346 health students (nursing, medicine, and public health) pre/post undertaking the IPEC course. Less than half of the students provided a post response, with pre/post survey results of 111 pairs subsequently matched and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed elevated pre-course scores, an improvement in students' attitudes towards the interprofessional biases domain of the IPAS, and a slight decline in their scores in the remaining 4 domains (team roles and responsibilities, patient centeredness, community centeredness, and diversity and ethics). These changes were not statistically significant, except for the patient centeredness domain (p = 0.003**). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided important results about attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration. These findings are essential because our institution is one of few in Lebanon that provides this mandatory course to a large group of health professionals. Future studies should investigate these changes in attitude scores in a larger sample size, and how these attitudes would influence collaboration post-graduation.

The development of task sharing policy and guidelines in Kenya.

BACKGROUND: The global critical shortage of health workers prevents expansion of healthcare services and universal health coverage. Like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya's healthcare workforce density of 13.8 health workers per 10,000 population falls below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of at least 44.5 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 10,000 population. In response to the health worker shortage, the WHO recommends task sharing, a strategy that can increase access to quality health services. To improve the utilization of human and financial health resources in Kenya for HIV and other essential health services, the Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) in collaboration with various institutions developed national task sharing policy and guidelines (TSP). To advance task sharing, this article describes the process of developing, adopting, and implementing the Kenya TSP. CASE PRESENTATION: The development and approval of Kenya's TSP occurred from February 2015 to May 2017. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) allocated funding to Emory University through the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Advancing Children's Treatment initiative. After obtaining support from leadership in Kenya's MOH and health professional institutions, the TSP team conducted a desk review of policies, guidelines, scopes of practice, task analyses, grey literature, and peer-reviewed research. Subsequently, a Policy Advisory Committee was established to guide the process and worked collaboratively to form technical working groups that arrived at consensus and drafted the policy. The collaborative, multidisciplinary process led to the identification of gaps in service delivery resulting from health workforce shortages. This facilitated the development of the Kenya TSP, which provides a general orientation of task sharing in Kenya. The guidelines list priority tasks for sharing by various cadres as informed by evidence, such as HIV testing and counseling tasks. The TSP documents were disseminated to all county healthcare facilities in Kenya, yet implementation was stopped by order of the judiciary in 2019 after a legal challenge from an association of medical laboratorians. CONCLUSIONS: Task sharing may increase access to healthcare services in resource-limited settings. To advance task sharing, TSP and clinical practice could be harmonized, and necessary adjustments made to other policies that regulate practice (e.g., scopes of practice). Revisions to pre-service training curricula could be conducted to ensure health professionals have the requisite competencies to perform shared tasks. Monitoring and evaluation can help ensure that task sharing is implemented appropriately to ensure quality outcomes.
Categories: Investigaciones

Nigeria in the COVID era: Health system strengthening for national security and prosperity.

The coronavirus disease-19 pandemic has spread to all parts of the world. As of 20 May 2022, over 500 million confirmed cases have occurred with over 6 million deaths. In Nigeria, over 255,000 cases have occurred with more than 3000 deaths. The pandemic has adversely affected virtually all aspects of human endeavour, with a severe impact on the health system. The Nigerian health system was ill prepared for the pandemic, and this further weakened it. The impacts of the pandemic on the health system include disruption of health services, low motivation of the health workforce, unresponsive leadership and poor funding. The national response, though initially weak, was ramped up to expand capacity building, testing, public enlightenment, creation of isolation and treatment centres and research. The funding for the national response was from the government, private sector and multilateral donors. Nigeria must comprehensively strengthen its health system through motivating and building the capacity of its human resources for health, improved service delivery and provision of adequate funding, to be better prepared against future pandemics.
Categories: Investigaciones

Assessing the scalability of a health management-strengthening intervention at the district level: a qualitative study in Ghana, Malawi and Uganda

Abstract Background

The scale-up of successfully tested public health interventions is critical to achieving universal health coverage. To ensure optimal use of resources, assessment of the scalability of an intervention is recognized as a crucial step in the scale-up process. This study assessed the scalability of a tested health management-strengthening intervention (MSI) at the district level in Ghana, Malawi and Uganda.

Methods

Qualitative interviews were conducted with intervention users (district health management teams, DHMTs) and implementers of the scale-up of the intervention (national-level actors) in Ghana, Malawi and Uganda, before and 1 year after the scale-up had started. To assess the scalability of the intervention, the CORRECT criteria from WHO/ExpandNet were used during analysis.

Results

The MSI was seen as credible, as regional- and national-level Ministry of Health officials were championing the intervention. While documented evidence on intervention effectiveness was limited, district- and national-level stakeholders seemed to be convinced of the value of the intervention. This was based on its observed positive results regarding management competencies, teamwork and specific aspects of health workforce performance and service delivery. The perceived need for strengthening of management capacity and service delivery showed the relevance of the intervention, and relative advantages of the intervention were its participatory and sustainable nature. Turnover within the DHMTs and limited (initial) management capacity were factors complicating implementation. The intervention was not contested and was seen as compatible with (policy) priorities at the national level.

Conclusion

We conclude that the MSI is scalable. However, to enhance its scalability, certain aspects should be adapted to better fit the context in which the intervention is being scaled up. Greater involvement of regional and national actors alongside improved documentation of results of the intervention can facilitate scale-up. Continuous assessment of the scalability of the intervention with all stakeholders involved is necessary, as context, stakeholders and priorities may change. Therefore, adaptations of the intervention might be required. The assessment of scalability, preferably as part of the monitoring of a scale-up strategy, enables critical reflections on next steps to make the intervention more scalable and the scale-up more successful.

Categories: Investigaciones

The development of task sharing policy and guidelines in Kenya

Abstract Background

The global critical shortage of health workers prevents expansion of healthcare services and universal health coverage. Like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya’s healthcare workforce density of 13.8 health workers per 10,000 population falls below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of at least 44.5 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 10,000 population. In response to the health worker shortage, the WHO recommends task sharing, a strategy that can increase access to quality health services. To improve the utilization of human and financial health resources in Kenya for HIV and other essential health services, the Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) in collaboration with various institutions developed national task sharing policy and guidelines (TSP). To advance task sharing, this article describes the process of developing, adopting, and implementing the Kenya TSP.

Case presentation

The development and approval of Kenya’s TSP occurred from February 2015 to May 2017. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) allocated funding to Emory University through the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Advancing Children’s Treatment initiative. After obtaining support from leadership in Kenya’s MOH and health professional institutions, the TSP team conducted a desk review of policies, guidelines, scopes of practice, task analyses, grey literature, and peer-reviewed research. Subsequently, a Policy Advisory Committee was established to guide the process and worked collaboratively to form technical working groups that arrived at consensus and drafted the policy. The collaborative, multidisciplinary process led to the identification of gaps in service delivery resulting from health workforce shortages. This facilitated the development of the Kenya TSP, which provides a general orientation of task sharing in Kenya. The guidelines list priority tasks for sharing by various cadres as informed by evidence, such as HIV testing and counseling tasks. The TSP documents were disseminated to all county healthcare facilities in Kenya, yet implementation was stopped by order of the judiciary in 2019 after a legal challenge from an association of medical laboratorians.

Conclusions

Task sharing may increase access to healthcare services in resource-limited settings. To advance task sharing, TSP and clinical practice could be harmonized, and necessary adjustments made to other policies that regulate practice (e.g., scopes of practice). Revisions to pre-service training curricula could be conducted to ensure health professionals have the requisite competencies to perform shared tasks. Monitoring and evaluation can help ensure that task sharing is implemented appropriately to ensure quality outcomes.

Categories: Investigaciones

Experience of a telehealth and education program with maternal and perinatal outcomes in a low-resource region in Colombia

Abstract Introduction

Maternal morbidity and mortality rates associated with perinatal care remain a significant public health concern. Rural populations from low and middle-income countries have multiple barriers to access that contribute to a lack of adherence to prenatal care, and high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity. An intervention model based on telehealth and education was implemented between a tertiary high complex care hospital and a second-level hospital from a limited source region.

Objectives

We sought to identify an association in maternal and perinatal care quality indicators after implementing a model based on telehealth and education for patients with obstetric emergencies between two hospitals in a southwestern region of Colombia.

Methods

We conducted an ecological study between 2017 and 2019 to compare before and after obstetric emergency care through telemedicine from a secondary care center (Hospital Francisco de Paula Santander-HFPS) to the referral center (Fundación Valle del Lili-FVL). The intervention included verification visits to determine the installed capacity of care, a concerted improvement plan, and on-site educational training modules in obstetric and perinatal care.

Results

There were 102 and 148 patients treated before and after telemedicine implementation respectively. Clinical indicators after model implementation showed a reduction in perinatal mortality of 29%. In addition, a reduction in the need for transfusion of blood products due to postpartum hemorrhage was observed as well as the rate of eclampsia.

Conclusions

Implementing a model based on telehealth and education between secondary and tertiary care centers allowed the strengthening of the security of care in obstetric emergencies and had a positive effect on perinatal mortality.

Categories: Investigaciones

Does inter-border conflict influence the views of task sharing among community health volunteers in Nigeria? A qualitative study.

BACKGROUND: Volunteer community health workers are increasingly being engaged in Nigeria, through the World Health Organization's task sharing strategy. This strategy aims to address gaps in human resources for health, including inequitable distribution of health workers. Recent conflicts in rural and fragile border communities in northcentral Nigeria create challenges for volunteer community health workers to meet their community's increasing health needs. This study aimed to explore the perception of volunteers involved in task sharing to understand factors affecting performance and delivery in such contexts. METHODS: This was a qualitative study conducted in fragile border communities in north central Nigeria. Eighteen audio recorded, semi-structured interviews with volunteers and supervisors were performed. Their perceptions on how task sharing and allocation of tasks affect performance and delivery were elucidated. The transactional social framework was applied during the thematic analysis process to generate an explanatory account of the research data, which was analysed using NVivo software. RESULTS: Promotive and preventive tasks were shared among the predominantly agrarian respondents. There was a structured task allocation process that linked the community with the health system and mainly cordial relationships were in place. However, there were barriers related to ethnoreligious crises and current conflict, timing of task allocations, gender inequities in volunteerism, shortage of commodities, inadequate incentives, dwindling community support and negative attitudes of some volunteers. CONCLUSION: The perception of task sharing was mainly positive, despite the challenges, especially the current conflict. In this fragile context, reconsideration of non-seasonal task allocations within improved community-driven selection and security systems should be encouraged. Supportive supervision and providing adequate and timely renumeration will also be beneficial in this fragile setting.
Categories: Investigaciones

Creating an interprofessional education package on patients' spiritual needs.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mon, 25/07/2022 - 05:10
This article outlines the experiences of a Scottish healthcare chaplain. After a student nurse expressed a dated view of chaplains, I realised it was my responsibility to refresh it. After reflection I planned, developed and implemented an interprofessional education session for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) students on clinical placement. I had to develop awareness of learning theories, preferences and styles, and explore different methods of delivery. Since NMAHP students can be undergraduate, postgraduate, school leavers or career changers, the session is multi-generational and interprofessional. Attendee feedback was used to review the learning session. This package was developed and shared with my team but may be of value to other healthcare chaplains or spiritual care educators to introduce spiritual care to NMAHP students on clinical placement. It will also be a useful resource for nurses, midwives and allied health professionals to expand their understanding of the role.

Longitudinal impact of preregistration interprofessional education on the attitudes and skills of health professionals during their early careers: a non-randomised trial with 4-year outcomes.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mon, 25/07/2022 - 05:10
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a preregistration interprofessional education (IPE) programme changed attitudes towards teamwork and team skills during health professionals' final year of training and first 3 years of professional practice. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, non-randomised trial. SETTING: Final year health professional training at three academic institutions in New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Students from eight disciplines eligible to attend the IPE programme were recruited (617/730) prior to their final year of training. 130 participants attended the IPE programme; 115 intervention and 372 control participants were included in outcome analysis. INTERVENTION: The 5-week Tairawhiti IPE (TIPE) immersion programme during which students experience clinical placements in interdisciplinary teams, complete collaborative tasks and live together in shared accommodation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected via five surveys at 12-month intervals, containing Attitudes Towards Healthcare Teams Scale (ATHCTS), Team Skills Scale (TSS) and free-text items. Mixed-model analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline characteristics, compared scores between groups at each time point. Template analysis identified themes in free-text data. RESULTS: Mean ATHCTS scores for TIPE participants were 1.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.3) points higher than non-TIPE participants (p=0.002); scores were 1.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.0) points higher at graduation and 1.1 (95% CI -0.1 to 2.4) points higher 3 years postgraduation. Mean TSS scores for TIPE participants were 1.7 (95% CI 0.0 to 3.3) points higher than non-TIPE participants (p=0.045); scores were 3.5 points (95% CI 1.5 to 5.5) higher at graduation and 1.3 (95%CI -0.8 to 3.5) points higher 3 years postgraduation. TIPE participants made substantially more free-text comments about benefits of interprofessional collaboration and perceived the TIPE programme had a meaningful influence on their readiness to work in teams and the way in which they performed their healthcare roles. CONCLUSIONS: TIPE programme participation significantly improved attitudes towards healthcare teams and these changes were maintained over 4 years.

Legados históricos que influenciaram a formulação do Mais Médicos e que decorrem de sua implementação

Este artigo analisa a trajetória, de 1960 até 2021, das políticas que buscaram enfrentar a questão (issue) das insuficiências na oferta e formação de médicos para o sistema de saúde. Foi utilizado o método process tracing, com uso de análises bibliográfica, documental e de entrevistas com dirigentes governamentais do período de 2003 a 2019. Os recursos teóricos do Neoinstitucionalismo Histórico e da Teoria da Mudança Institucional Gradual foram utilizados para analisar legados históricos que influenciaram a formulação do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM), que decorreram de sua implementação e que seguem influenciando políticas posteriores. Entre os principais legados no período pré-SUS estão o Projeto Rondon, Programa de Interiorização das Ações de Saúde e Saneamento e as tentativas de implementar o serviço civil obrigatório. Após o surgimento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), destacam-se mudanças institucionais para sua implementação, a Estratégia de Saúde da Família, experiências estaduais de cooperação com Cuba, dois programas de provimento e dois de incentivos às mudanças curriculares dos cursos de medicina, alteração da lei do financiamento estudantil e no processo de revalidação dos diplomas estrangeiros de medicina. Embora a partir de 2016 tenham sido realizadas mudanças no PMM, os legados do programa dificultaram sua suspensão, seguem influenciando programas como o Médicos pelo Brasil (PMPB) e fez o governo atual usar a institucionalidade do PMM, e não a do PMPB, para enfrentar a crise sanitária decorrente da pandemia da covid-19. A análise evidenciou rupturas, continuidades, transformações e inclusões nas políticas de regulação, formação e provimento de médicos para o sistema de saúde. This paper analyzes the trajectory, from 1960 to 2021, of policies addressing the issue of shortages in the supply and training of physicians for the health care system. Data was collected by means of bibliographic and documental analysis and interviews with government leaders from 2003 to 2019, using the process tracing method. Historical Neo-institutionalism and the Theory of Gradual Institutional Change were used to analyze historical legacies that influenced the formulation of the Mais Médicos Program (PMM), that derived from its implementation, and that continue to influence subsequent policies. Among the main legacies in the pre-SUS period are the Rondon Project, the Program for Interiorization of Health and Sanitation Actions, and the attempts to implement compulsory civil service. After the Unified Health System (SUS) establishment, institutional changes for its implementing stand out: the Family Health Strategy, state experiences of cooperation with Cuba, two provision programs and two incentive programs for curricular changes in medical courses, changes in the student financing law, and in the revalidation process of foreign medical degrees. Although changes have been made to the PMM since 2016, its legacies have made its suspension difficult, continue to influence programs such as Médicos Pelo Brasil (PMPB), and led the current government to use the PMM institutionality, rather than that of the PMPB, to address the COVID-19 pandemic health crisis. The analysis unveiled ruptures, continuities, transformations and inclusions in the policies for regulating, training, and providing doctors for the health system. Este artículo analiza la trayectoria, desde 1960 hasta 2021, de las políticas que buscaron abordar el tema (issue) de las insuficiencias en la oferta y formación de médicos para el sistema de salud. Se utilizó el método process tracing, con el análisis bibliográfico, documental y entrevistas a funcionarios gubernamentales en el periodo desde 2003 hasta 2019. Se utilizaron los recursos teóricos del Neoinstitucionalismo Histórico y la Teoría del Cambio Institucional Gradual para analizar los legados históricos que influyeron en la creación del Programa Más Médicos (PMM), en su implementación y que continúan influyendo en las políticas posteriores. Entre los principales legados del periodo anterior al SUS están el Proyecto Rondon, el Programa de Interiorización de las Acciones de Salud y Saneamiento y los intentos de implementación del servicio civil obligatorio. Tras el surgimiento del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS), se destacan cambios institucionales para su implementación: la Estrategia de Salud Familiar, experiencias estatales de cooperación con Cuba, dos programas de prestación de servicios y dos de promoción de cambios curriculares en los cursos de medicina, reforma de la ley de financiación de estudiantes y en proceso de revalidación de títulos extranjeros de medicina. Aunque se hicieron cambios en el PMM a partir de 2016, los legados del programa dificultaron su interrupción, continúan influyendo en programas como el de Médicos para Brasil (PMPB) e hicieron que el gobierno actual utilizara el marco institucional del PMM, y no el de el PMPB, para enfrentar la crisis sanitaria derivada de la pandemia del Covid-19. El análisis mostró rupturas, continuidades, transformaciones e inclusiones en las políticas de regulación, formación y disposición de médicos para el sistema de salud.
Categories: Investigaciones

Does inter-border conflict influence the views of task sharing among community health volunteers in Nigeria? A qualitative study

Abstract Background

Volunteer community health workers are increasingly being engaged in Nigeria, through the World Health Organization’s task sharing strategy. This strategy aims to address gaps in human resources for health, including inequitable distribution of health workers. Recent conflicts in rural and fragile border communities in northcentral Nigeria create challenges for volunteer community health workers to meet their community's increasing health needs. This study aimed to explore the perception of volunteers involved in task sharing to understand factors affecting performance and delivery in such contexts.

Methods

This was a qualitative study conducted in fragile border communities in north central Nigeria. Eighteen audio recorded, semi-structured interviews with volunteers and supervisors were performed. Their perceptions on how task sharing and allocation of tasks affect performance and delivery were elucidated. The transactional social framework was applied during the thematic analysis process to generate an explanatory account of the research data, which was analysed using NVivo software.

Results

Promotive and preventive tasks were shared among the predominantly agrarian respondents. There was a structured task allocation process that linked the community with the health system and mainly cordial relationships were in place. However, there were barriers related to ethnoreligious crises and current conflict, timing of task allocations, gender inequities in volunteerism, shortage of commodities, inadequate incentives, dwindling community support and negative attitudes of some volunteers.

Conclusion

The perception of task sharing was mainly positive, despite the challenges, especially the current conflict. In this fragile context, reconsideration of non-seasonal task allocations within improved community-driven selection and security systems should be encouraged. Supportive supervision and providing adequate and timely renumeration will also be beneficial in this fragile setting.

Categories: Investigaciones

Black nurses in the nursing profession in Canada: a scoping review

Abstract Background

With migration occurring over a series of centuries, dating back to the 1600’s, the circumstance regarding Black people in Canada is a complex account. A plethora of social issues and the failure to adequately acknowledge and reconcile historical issues, has resulted in health inequity, disparities and knowledge gaps, related to the Black population in Canada. In nursing, historical records indicate a legacy of discrimination that continues to impact Black nurses. The profession has begun reckoning with anti-Black racism and the residual effects. This scoping review sought to chart the existing evidence on Black nurses in the nursing profession in Canada.

Methods

JBI methodology was used to search peer-reviewed evidence and unpublished gray literature. Sources were considered for inclusion based on criteria outlined in an a priori protocol focusing on: 1) Canada 2) Black nurses and 3) nursing practice. No restrictions were placed on date of publication and language was limited to English and French. All screening and extractions were completed by two independent reviewers.

Results

The database search yielded 688 records. After removing duplicates, 600 titles and abstracts were screened for eligibility and 127 advanced to full-text screening. Eighty-two full-text articles were excluded, for a total of 44 sources meeting the inclusion criteria. Seven sources were identified through gray literature search. Subsequently, 31 sources underwent data extraction. Of the 31 sources, 18 are research (n = 18), six are commentaries (n = 6); one report (n = 1) and six are classified as announcements, memoranda or policy statements (n = 6). The review findings are categorized into five conceptual categories: racism (n = 12); historical situatedness (n = 2); leadership and career progression (n = 7); immigration (n = 4); and diversity in the workforce (n = 4).

Conclusions

This review reveals the interconnectedness of the five conceptual categories. Racism was a prominent issue woven throughout the majority of the sources. Additionally, this review captures how racism is exacerbated by intersectional factors such as gender, class and nationality. The findings herein offer insight regarding anti-Black racism and discrimination in nursing as well as suggestions for future research including the use of diverse methodologies in different jurisdictions across the country. Lastly, the implications extend to the nursing workforce in relation to enhancing diversity and addressing the ongoing nursing shortage.

Categories: Investigaciones

Safeguarding equitable HIV service delivery at the health facility-level in a resource-limited setting during the pandemic

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic had a severe impact on delivering essential health services, including HIV service delivery. Among the challenges encountered and addressed by the HIV and AIDS Department of the San Lazaro Hospital were ensuring continued access to antiretroviral therapy and ensuring continuity of client education and empowerment. Two years into the pandemic, challenges still ensue, such as protecting health care providers from COVID-19 and regular clinical monitoring of clients. This highlights the importance of urgent action to strengthen the resilience of health systems at all its levels, not only to respond to sudden disturbances, but also to transform and evolve to be able to better face future pandemics.

Categories: Investigaciones

Perceptions and Experiences of Health Care Workers on Accountability Mechanisms for Enhancing Quality Improvement in the Delivery of Maternal Newborns and Child Health Services in Mkuranga, Tanzania.

Background: Maternal mortality estimates globally show that by 2017 there were still 211 deaths per 100,000 live births; more strikingly, 99% of them happen in low and middle-income countries, including Tanzania. There has been insufficient progress in improving maternal and newborn health despite the efforts to strengthen the health systems, to improve the quality of maternal health in terms of training and deploying human resources for health, constructing health facilities, and supplying medical products. However, fewer efforts are invested in enhancing accountability toward the improvement of the quality of maternal health care. This the study was conducted to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers regarding accountability mechanisms for enhancing quality improvement in the delivery of maternal newborn and child health services in Tanzania. Methods: We adopted phenomenology as a study design to understand how health workers perceive accountability and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. We then used thematic analysis to analyze themes and sub- themes. Results: The study revealed four categories of perceptions namely, differences in the conceptualization of accountability and accountability mechanisms, varied opinions about the existing accountability mechanisms, perceived the usefulness of accountability mechanisms, together with perceived challenges in the enforcement of accountability mechanisms. Conclusion: Perceived variations in the understanding of accountability among healthcare workers signaled a proper but fragmented understanding of accountability in maternal care. Accountability mechanisms are perceived to be useful for enhancing hard work in the provision of maternal health services. Moreover, inadequate motivation resulting from health system bottlenecks tend to constrain enforcement of accountability in the provision of maternal care services. Thus, we recommend that the government should deal with health system constraints and enforce regular monitoring and supervision.
Categories: Investigaciones

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