OBJECTIVE: To explore inequalities in human resources for health (HRH) in relation to all cause and cause specific mortality globally in 1990-2019. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 172 countries and territories. DATA SOURCES: Databases of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, United Nations Statistics, and Our World in Data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population in relation to HRH density per 10 000 population, and secondary outcome was age standardized cause specific mortality. The Lorenz curve and the concentration index (CCI) were used to assess trends and inequalities in HRH. RESULTS: Globally, the total HRH density per 10 000 population increased, from 56.0 in 1990 to 142.5 in 2019, whereas age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population decreased, from 995.5 in 1990 to 743.8 in 2019. The Lorenz curve lay below the equality line and CCI was 0.43 (P<0.05), indicating that the health workforce was more concentrated among countries and territories ranked high on the human development index. The CCI for HRH was stable, at about 0.42-0.43 between 1990 and 2001 and continued to decline (narrowed inequality), from 0.43 in 2001 to 0.38 in 2019 (P<0.001). In the multivariable generalized estimating equation model, a negative association was found between total HRH level and all cause mortality, with the highest levels of HRH as reference (low: incidence risk ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.32; middle: 1.14, 1.01 to 1.29; high: 1.18, 1.08 to 1.28). A negative association between total HRH density and mortality rate was more pronounced for some types of cause specific mortality, including neglected tropical diseases and malaria, enteric infections, maternal and neonatal disorders, and diabetes and kidney diseases. The risk of death was more likely to be higher in people from countries and territories with a lower density of doctors, dentistry staff, pharmaceutical staff, aides and emergency medical workers, optometrists, psychologists, personal care workers, physiotherapists, and radiographers. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in HRH have been decreasing over the past 30 years globally but persist. All cause mortality and most types of cause specific mortality were relatively higher in countries and territories with a limited health workforce, especially for several specific HRH types among priority diseases. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening political commitment to develop equity oriented health workforce policies, expanding health financing, and implementing targeted measures to reduce deaths related to inadequate HRH to achieve universal health coverage by 2030.
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to worldwide health service disruptions, due mainly to insufficient staff availability. To gain insight into policy responses and engage with policy-makers, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a global approach to assess and measure the impact of COVID-19 on the health workforce. As part of this, WHO, together with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), supported an impact analysis of COVID-19 on health workers and policy responses, through country case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: We sought to identify lessons learned from policies on human resources for health (HRH) during health emergencies, to improve HRH readiness. First, we performed a rapid literature review for information-gathering. Second, we used the WHO interim guidance and impact measurement framework for COVID-19 and HRH to systematically organize that information. Finally, we used the Health Labour Market Framework to guide the content analysis on COVID-19 response in eight LAC countries and identify lessons learned to improve HRH readiness. RESULTS: Planning and implementing the COVID-19 response required strengthening HRH governance and HRH data and information systems. The results suggest two main aspects for HRH governance crucial to enabling an agile response: (1) aligning objectives among ministries to define and produce regulation and policy actions; and (2) agreeing on the strategy for HRH management between the public and private sectors, and between central and local governments. We identified three areas for improvement: (a) HRH information systems; (b) methodologies to estimate HRH needs; and (c) teams to analyse information for decision-making. Three key actions were identified during countries monitored, reviewed, and updated their response stages: (i) strengthening response through primary health care; (ii); planning HRH needs to implement the vaccination plan; and (iii) securing long-term HRH availability. CONCLUSION: Countries coordinated and articulated with different stakeholders to align objectives, allocate resources, and agree on policy actions to implement the COVID-19 response. Data and information for HRH preparedness and implementation were key in enabling an agile COVID-19 response and are key areas to explore for improved pandemic preparedness.
Background In 1993, WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency considering 10 million people are battling TB, of which 30% are undiagnosed annually. In 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic took an unprecedented toll on health systems in every country. Public health staff already engaged in TB control and numerous other departments were additionally tasked with managing COVID-19, stretching human resource (HR) capacity beyond its limits. As part of an assessment of HR involved in TB control in India, The World Bank Group and partners conducted an analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on TB human resources for health (HRH) workloads, with the objective of describing the extent to which TB-related activities could be fulfilled and hypothesizing on future HR requirements to meet those needs. Methods The study team conducted a WISN analysis according to standard WHO methodology to classify the workloads of priority cadres directly or indirectly involved in TB control activities as over-, adequately or under-worked, in 18 districts across seven states in India. Data collection was done via telephone interviews, and questions were added regarding the proportion of time dedicated to COVID-19 related tasks. We carried out quantitative analysis to describe the time allocated to COVID-19 which otherwise would have been spent on TB activities. We also conducted key informant interviews (KII) with key TB program staff about HRH planning and task-shifting from TB to COVID-19. Results Workload data were collected from 377 respondents working in or together with India’s Central TB Division (CTD). Approximately 75% of total respondents (n = 122) reported carrying out COVID-19 tasks. The average time spent on COVID-19 tasks was 4 hours / day (n = 72 respondents). Multiple cadres highly instrumental in TB screening and diagnosis, in particular community outreach (ASHA) workers and CBNAAT/TrueNAAT laboratory technicians working at peripheral, block and district levels, were overworked, and spending more than 50% of their time on COVID-19 tasks, reducing time for TB case-finding. Qualitative interviews with laboratory technicians revealed that PCR machines previously used for TB testing were repurposed for COVID-19 testing. Conclusions The devastating impact of COVID-19 on HR capacity to conduct TB case-finding in India, as in other settings, cannot be overstated. Our findings provide clear evidence that NTEP human resources did not have time or essential material resources to carry out TB tasks during the COVID pandemic without doing substantial overtime and/or compromising on TB service delivery. To minimize disruptions to routine health services such as TB amidst future emerging infectious diseases, we would do well, during periods of relative calm and stability, to strategically map out how HRH lab staff, public health resources, such as India’s Health and Wellness Centers and public health cadre, and public-private sector collaboration can most optimally absorb shocks to the health system.
Objectives: Systematize and analyze the response actions related to human resources for health during the pandemic, reported by 20 countries of the Region of the Americas in the mid-term evaluation of the Plan of Action on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage 2018-2023 (Pan American Health Organization, 2018), and assess the importance of the policies on human resources for health (HRH) and on HRH management expressed in the Plan of Action and in the Strategy on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage during health emergencies and in normal times. Methods: Reports on actions taken in 20 countries of the Region against COVID-19 and for HRH were selected and systematized. These were classified as immediate contingency actions, actions related to installed capacities, and emerging actions. Results: The capacity to plan and manage HRH in countries depends on their installed, functional structures and competencies. The pandemic highlighted the need to have new job profiles, improve precarious working and contractual conditions, emphasize the gender perspective, and address numerical gaps in certain areas and levels of care. Conclusions: Linking the monitoring of the Plan of Action with the COVID-19 response demonstrated the importance of HRH governance, management, and installed capacities when responding to health emergencies and in normal times. The analysis suggests a need to review existing public policies, models of care that can guide current and future needs in HRH, the profiles required, working conditions, and ways to close numerical gaps, among other issues. The pandemic enabled countries to innovate in response to demands. The Strategy and the Plan of Action remain in place to guide and strengthen the performance of human resources for health. Objetivos: Sistematizar e analisar as ações de resposta relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde durante a pandemia, relatadas por 20 países da Região das Américas na avaliação intermediária do Plano de ação sobre recursos humanos para o acesso universal à saúde e a cobertura universal de saúde 2018-2023 (Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, 2018), e avaliar a importância das políticas e da gestão de recursos humanos expressas na estratégia e no plano durante emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. Métodos: Foram selecionados e sistematizados relatórios sobre ações contra a COVID-19 e recursos humanos para a saúde de 20 países da Região. As ações foram classificadas em ações imediatas de contingência, ações relacionadas às capacidades instaladas e ações emergentes. Resultados: As capacidades de planejamento e gestão de recursos humanos para a saúde nos países dependem das estruturas e das competências instaladas e funcionais. A pandemia tornou visível a necessidade de ter novos perfis de trabalho, melhorar as precárias condições de trabalho e contratuais, tornar visível a perspectiva de gênero e solucionar lacunas numéricas em determinadas áreas e níveis de atenção. Conclusões: A vinculação das ações contra a COVID-19 com o monitoramento do plano demonstrou a importância da governança, da gestão e das capacidades instaladas relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde, para responder a emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. A análise convida à revisão das políticas públicas existentes, dos modelos de atenção necessários para orientar as necessidades atuais e futuras dos recursos humanos para a saúde, os perfis exigidos, as condições de trabalho e a cobertura das lacunas numéricas existentes, entre outras questões. A pandemia permitiu inovações nos países para responder à demanda. A estratégia e o plano continuam vigentes para orientar e fortalecer o desempenho dos recursos humanos para a saúde.
Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, health workforces (HWF) in small countries were faced with huge demands, having to address challenges related to a relatively limited capacity in human resources for health. The need to take small-country specificities into account in planning effective HRH policy responses continues to be highly relevant. The main objectives of the Meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Human Resources for Health in Small Countries of the WHO European Region were to: share information and provide a regional update on policy tools and resources for HWF challenges in a webinar forum open to various WHO networks; understand the impact of the pandemic on HRH planning and development (member-country experiences, and national HWF priorities for the next 2–3 years); discuss the Group’s action plan for 2022–2023 and agree on priorities; and hold on-line consultations with three sub-sets of small countries (island countries, continental countries and city-states). The meeting revealed the importance of collaborative working – both within the health sector and between the health and non-health sectors – to improve health systems in small countries and concluded in proposing areas in which small countries could be supported to this end.
Cocreation in health workforce planning in the Philippines led to relationship building between policy makers and researchers who jointly identified solutions to address challenges in the health care system. Key Messages The COVID-19 pandemic presented strategic opportunities to strengthen national health workforce planning to shape future health care systems that are responsive both during normal times and during crises. We describe our health workforce planning process based on a cocreation model that built a relationship between researchers and policy makers to coproduce recommendations to strengthen primary care and advance universal health coverage in the Philippines. We applied 2 approaches to project the future supply of 10 selected health professions and estimated the demand for primary care services at national and subnational levels;our analysis provided spaces for policy recommendations on issues related to health workforce quantity, skill mix, and distribution. Key Implication Lessons from our experience may guide policy makers, program managers, and researchers in low- and middle-income countries as they navigate the challenges in their health workforce through cocreation where the research addresses policy-relevant questions and the resulting policy is informed by the research evidence. Background: The Philippines passed landmark legislation in 2019 on universal health coverage, including reforms in the development of its health workforce, an essential building block of responsive health care systems. Health Workforce Planning Cocreation Process: We based our planning process on a model of cocreation defined as sharing power and decision making to solve problems collaboratively and build consensus around action. Through cocreation with policy makers, researchers, and other stakeholders, we performed projection studies on 10 selected health professions and estimated the need for primary care at national and subnational levels, which was the most extensive health workforce projection carried out by the Philippine Department of Health to date. We determined health workforce requirements based on target densities recommended by the World Health Organization and a health needs approach that considered epidemiological and sociodemographic factors. In consultation with stakeholders, we interpreted our analysis to guide recommendations to address issues related to health workforce quantity, skill mix, and distribution. These included a broad range of proposals, including task shifting, expanding scholarships and deployment, reforming health professionals' education, and pursuing a whole-of-society approach, which together informed the National Human Resources for Health Master Plan. Conclusions: Our cocreation model offers lessons for policy makers, program managers, and researchers in low- and middle-income countries who deal with health workforce challenges. Cocreation led to relationship building between policy makers and researchers who jointly performed the research and identified solutions through open communication and agile coordination. To shape future health care systems that are responsive both during normal times and during crises, cocreation would be essential for evidence-informed policy development and policy-relevant research.
Objectives: To explore how virtual, asynchronous modules can be used in interprofessional health education curricula and to identify any advantages and shortcomings of asynchronous interprofessional education. Methods: A sample of 27 health professional students who attended in-person interprofessional education workshops at the McMaster Centre for Simulation-Based Learning from 2019-2020 were recruited through email discourse. Participants were asked to complete an asynchronous interprofessional education module and take part in a semi-structured interview that was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Techniques of direct content analysis were used to analyze the qualitative data from recorded transcripts. Results: The following emergent themes from participants' responses were identified: 1) the modules, as well as the features interspersed throughout, taught strategies for conflict resolution and interprofessional communication, 2) the modules have utility in preparing students for future interprofessional learning, 3) the convenience of virtual asynchronous modules introduces a sense of learner safety, and 4) a sense of isolation and fatigue was identified as a consequence of the lack of face-to-face interaction in these modules. Conclusion: Asynchronous interprofessional education modules may be best suited to prepare students for future interprofessional learning in a synchronous setting. Asynchronous modules effectively provide an introduction to interprofessional objectives such as conflict resolution and role clarification, yet the competency of team functioning is more difficult to achieve in an asynchronous environment. Future studies may focus on establishing a sequence of completing asynchronous modules for ideal development of interprofessional competencies in health professions learners.
BACKGROUND: Millions of children are treated annually for trauma-related injuries but comprise a smaller proportion of emergency department visits than adults. As a result, emergency department teams may not have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to care for pediatric patients, and specialty teams may not interact enough as an interprofessional team to provide high-quality patient care. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project is to describe a novel interprofessional simulation-based education initiative to assist pediatric trauma team readiness. METHODS: An escape room was designed to provide an interactive educational environment focused on pediatric trauma education. Using an interprofessional dyad of a trauma nursing specialist and a pediatric nursing expert, the escape room was designed as a series of clues to improve pediatric skills and interprofessional collaboration between specialty teams. The escape room training was conducted (from February to March, 2023) in a large Southeastern U.S. Level II adult trauma center. RESULTS: Twenty-one registered nurses from different specialty teams participated in the simulation exercises with overwhelmingly positive feedback. Colleagues reported this was a unique way to deliver education that resulted in innovative team building and enriched collegiality between the specialty teams. CONCLUSIONS: The escape room educational format was positively received, and future events are planned across disciplines and various topics. Trauma centers with lower pediatric volumes seeking to provide engaging team-based education may use this format as a unique and innovative way to develop teams for clinical success.
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education is essential for students enrolled in health care professional programs. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the attitudes towards and the beliefs about interprofessional education (IPE) among program directors of medical laboratory science (MLS) and medical laboratory technician (MLT) programs accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS). We also investigated the inclusion of IPE in the curricula of such programs. METHODS: We emailed the link to an anonymous 22-item cross-sectional survey to 468 program directors and tabulated the responses. RESULTS: Program directors who support the need to include IPE within the curricula of MLT and MLS programs showed a generally positive attitude towards IPE. The beliefs about IPE among our respondents were not homogeneous. Program directors who have not yet implemented IPE in the curriculum may not have had an opportunity to experience the practical benefits of IPE. CONCLUSION: Although barriers to IPE implementation exist, half of the respondents reported having already implemented IPE within their curricula.
A shortage of healthcare workers can hinder the ability to prepare for and respond to global security threats caused by diseases that are prone to pandemics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the shortage of healthcare workers became a growing concern worldwide. Recognizing these challenges, countries adopted measures to ensure healthcare workers’ freedom of movement in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. As the WHO continues the negotiation process to reform the 2005 International Health Regulations and to adopt a new Pandemic Treaty, with one key provision relating to healthcare workers’ mobility, questions remain as to whether States will actually adopt a binding international legal instrument or whether its effectiveness will be watered down by the intrinsic vulnerabilities of an international legal system that has (too) often been unable to tame geopolitical interests. Considering these challenges, we assessed the emergence of a norm of customary international law allowing the free movement of healthcare workers during pandemics.
Our study examined the laws and policies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic concerning healthcare workers’ mobility in 10 countries, representing all continents. The country selection was based on regional representation and a preliminary analysis indicating their early adoption of measures related to healthcare workers’ mobility. Temporal limits were set. To gather relevant data, we employed various methods including research databases, media sources, and the COVID-19 Law Lab database.
Our research identified and assessed instances of state practice and evidence of opinio juris to determine whether a norm of customary international law mandating states to ensure healthcare workers’ freedom of movement during pandemics exists.
The findings indicate a strong consensus towards ensuring the free movement of healthcare workers in times of pandemics as a way to respond to outbreaks of disease. Within months, Argentina, Colombia, Kenya, South Africa, India, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, ten nations representing most regions of the world, recognized, as law, the practice of excluding healthcare workers from prohibitions on movement.
Ultimately, this discussion is critical for global health because if a norm does exist in this regard, it will further strengthen pandemic legal preparedness efforts. As such, it becomes clear that the reform of the 2005 International Health Regulations and/or the adoption of a new pandemic treaty will bolster the strength of this emerging norm of customary international law and crystallize it. These legal instruments would propel a norm that is already in the process of formulation into existence. Thus, crystallizing a norm that is otherwise emerging among states.
Desirable outcomes for people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are achieved when they access routine monitoring and care services. Expectedly, the COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted access to healthcare services, leading to poor health outcomes among people with NCDs. We aimed to  explore the delays in accessing healthcare services and  understand alternative actions adopted by people with NCDs to overcome these delays.
We conducted an exploratory qualitative research guided by the “Three Delays” model to unpack the barriers to healthcare access for people living with NCDs in Ibadan, Nigeria. The “Three Delays” model conceptualizes the reasons for negative/adverse healthcare outcomes related to the patient’s decision-making to seek healthcare, reaching an appropriate healthcare facility, and receiving adequate care at the healthcare facility. Twenty-five (25) people with NCDs were purposively selected from the University College Hospital’s medical outpatient department to participate in in-depth interviews. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a deductive-inductive hybrid thematic analysis.
At the level of individual decision-making, delays were related to fear of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital (considered a hotspot of the COVID-19 pandemic). Regarding reaching an appropriate healthcare facility, delays were mainly attributed to the intra- and inter-city lockdowns, limiting the movements of persons. For those who successfully arrived at the healthcare facilities, delays were related to the unavailability of healthcare professionals, prioritization of COVID-19 patients, and mandatory adherence to COVID-19 protocols, including COVID-19 testing. To overcome the delays mentioned above, people with NCDs resorted to (i) using private healthcare facilities, which were more costly, (ii) using virtual consultation through mobile phone Apps and (iii) self-management, usually by repeating previously prescribed prescriptions to obtain medication.
Pandemic conditions provide unique challenges to people with chronic illnesses. Recognizing the need for continuous access to monitoring and care services under such conditions remains critical. Alternative health service provision approaches should be considered in pandemic situations, including remote healthcare services such as Mobile health apps (mHealth) that can help manage and prevent NCDs.
Este trabalho analisa as Residências Multiprofissionais em Saúde, com o objetivo de identificar de que maneira os programas financiados pelo Ministério da Saúde, a partir da Portaria Interministerial 1.077 de 2009, encontram-se distribuídos pelo país. Realizou-se uma pesquisa documental exploratória utilizando editais e portarias publicados pelo Ministério da Saúde, através da Secretaria de Gestão do Trabalho e da Educação em Saúde em conjunto com o Ministério da Educação, através da Secretaria de Educação Superior. A análise foi dividida em três momentos: distribuição dos programas de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde de acordo com as regiões brasileiras, com as áreas de concentração consideradas pelo Ministério da Saúde como prioritárias para o Sistema Único de Saúde e com as instituições proponentes. Ao longo da escrita, os aspectos históricos das Residências Multiprofissionais em Saúde são revisitados desde a década de 70, até sua configuração como parte integrante da Política Nacional de Gestão da Educação na Saúde. São discutidos os elementos que permeiam a implementação das Residências Multiprofissionais em Saúde, como a concepção de atenção integral à saúde, o trabalho em equipe multiprofissional e a formação em serviço, além de questões relativas ao seu financiamento, à sua institucionalização e à sua inserção na Política Nacional de Educação Permanente em Saúde. As Residências Multiprofissionais em Saúde são consideradas como potenciais indutoras de transformação dos processos de educação e de trabalho vigentes na saúde, trazendo à discussão a importância de sua legitimação e consolidação como peça fundamental de uma política de formação voltada para o Sistema Único de Saúde. (AU) The complex health demands of contemporary society require the construction of a professional profile and a more integrated health workforce. Interprofessional Education (IPE) for patient-centered collaborative practice has been globally recognized as a strategy capable of fostering changes in training and improving health outcomes. Guided by the teaching-service-community integration and training for teamwork, seeking to overcome the trend of isolated and fragmented professional performance, the Multiprofessional Residency in Health (RMS) constitutes a modality of in-service education that favors the development of interprofessionals collaborative skills. This thesis aimed to analyze the educational context of RMS programs from the perspective of EIP and collaborative practices in health. For this, a multi-method, exploratory and descriptive study of multiple cases was carried out between March and November 2020, with 86 actors from three RMS programs in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected through bibliographic research on the theme of EIP in the RMS; documentary analysis of the political-pedagogical projects (PPP) of the programs; online survey and application of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Related to Interprofessional Collaboration (EJARCI) to residents and tutors; and semi-structured online interviews with course coordinators. The analysis and combination of data were guided by the theoretical-methodological framework of the EIP. The publications found in the bibliographic research are mostly experience reports that evaluated the impacts of adopting EIP strategies, studies on the perception of residents about interprofessional performance, and PPP analyses. From the documental analysis, it was verified that the PPP of the three RMS programs are close to the EIP precepts, but they do not present a standardized structure oriented to the development of interprofessional competences. The EJARCI analysis showed a favorable attitude towards the interprofessional collaboration of all actors, with no statistical differences between the studied variables. The survey and interviews indicated that the RMS are configured as powerful educational scenarios for the acquisition of collaborative skills, as they promote communication and knowledge exchange between different professionals from integrative activities and contextual teaching methodologies that aim care integrality. The barriers that limit the success of EIP in the RMS could be mitigated through the qualification of teachers and tutors, reorganization of the workload of residents, deepening the use of interactive methodologies, greater interaction with medical residency, and diversification of scenarios and activities that promote interprofessional integration. (AU)
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in pharmacy is a lifelong learning approach whereby individual pharmacists are responsible for updating and broadening their knowledge, skills, and attitudes. This is vital to ensure the delivery of high-quality patient care services. However, there is a lack of available data revealing the CPD needs of Ethiopian pharmacists. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify CPD training needs of pharmacists practicing in Ethiopia.
An institution-based cross-sectional study design with a quantitative approach was employed in this study. This assessment involved 640 pharmacists representing various sectors of the profession. Data were collected through a combination of an online platform and a face-to-face questionnaire administered in person.
A total of 634 participants completed and returned the questionnaires, resulting in an impressive response rate of 99.1%. A significant majority (74.1%) of the participants possessed bachelor’s degree in pharmacy (B. Pharm). Pharmaceutical Logistics and Pharmacy administration was preferentially selected as a prior CPD course by 36% of participants, of them while Pharmacotherapy (17%), Leadership/Governance (13%), Community Pharmacy (12%), Research and Development (11%) were also the subsequent top choices by participants. Off-site face-to-face lectures (59.2%), Hybrid (face-to-face + e-learning) (54.8%), and on-site on-the-job training (45.5%) were the most convenient means of CPD course delivery. On the other hand, the participants least favored print-based or correspondence programs for CPD course delivery.
CPD holds great importance in the professional lives of pharmacists. It is critical for pharmacists, CPD providers, and those responsible for accrediting CPD programs to recognize the specific CPD requirements, preferred methods of delivery, and obstacles involved. This understanding is vital for establishing priorities and effectively planning CPD activities. In light of this, our study identified the most preferred CPD training courses and convenient delivery methods for pharmacists in Ethiopia. We recommend that CPD providers and accrediting bodies in Ethiopia refer to our findings when approving CPD courses.
Evidence of the health impact of climate change has been extensively documented in recent scholarly literature. In order to mitigate the adverse health effects induced by climate change, the need for conducting vulnerability assessments (VAs) has been emphasised. A higher vulnerability to climate change is often linked with substantial risks to human lives and built environment. Despite the potential of VAs in alleviating risks posed by climate change, only a limited amount of scholarly work in this domain has been conducted in the Indian context. The present research addresses this lacuna and contributes to the limited scholarship on climate change and health VAs in India. Drawing on the VA framework introduced by the fourth assessment report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this paper estimates district-level health vulnerabilities caused by climate change using multi-dimensional indices. The indices are multi-dimensional since they integrate 50 district-level indicators from 8 data sources for all 640 Census 2011 districts. The statistical technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been used for integrating the indicators. The findings of this paper indicate that nearly 56% of India’s population in 344 districts is highly vulnerable to the health impact of climate change. The results show that high vulnerability in certain districts is mediated by high adaptive capacity (AC). Since climate exposure varies across districts, the paper highlights the need for local-level responses and Complex Adaptive System (CAS) thinking to understand the implications of climate change and human health.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a sizable effect on interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) globally, yet much of the available literature on the topic remains anecdotal and locally bounded. This body of literature reflects celebratory and aspirational reports, with many case studies of successful response and perseverance under conditions of extreme pressure. There is, however, a more worrisome narrative emerging that pointed to differences in pandemic response with concerns raised about the sustainability of IPECP during and after the pandemic. The COVID-19 task force of InterprofessionalResearch.Global (IPRGlobal) set out to capture the successes and challenges of the interprofessional community over the pandemic through a longitudinal survey, with a view to inform global attempts at recovery and resilience. In this article, we report preliminary findings from Phase 1 of the survey. Phase 1 of the survey was sent to institutions/organizations in IPRGlobal (representing over 50 countries from Europe, North and South America, Australia, and Africa). The country-level response rate was over 50%. Key opportunities and challenges include the abrupt digitalization of collaborative learning and practice; de-prioritization of interprofessional education (IPE); and rise in interprofessional collaborative spirit. Implications for IPECP pedagogy, research, and policy post-pandemic are considered.
Interprofessional education during medical training may improve communication by promoting collaboration and the development of shared mental models between professions. We implemented a novel discussion-based intervention for surgical residents and nurses to promote mutual understanding of workflows and communication practices. General surgery residents and inpatient nurses from our institution were recruited to participate. Surveys and paging data were collected prior to and following the intervention. Surveys contained original questions and validated subscales. Interventions involved facilitated discussions about workflows, perceptions of urgency, and technology preferences. Discussions were recorded and transcribed for qualitative content analysis. Pre and post-intervention survey responses were compared with descriptive sample statistics. Group characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Eleven intervention groups were conducted (2-6 participants per group) (n = 38). Discussions achieved three aims: Information-Sharing (learning about each other's workflows and preferences), 2) Interpersonal Relationship-Building (establishing rapport and fostering empathy) and 3) Interventional Brainstorming (discussing strategies to mitigate communication challenges). Post-intervention surveys revealed improved nurse-reported grasp of resident schedules and tailoring of communication methods based on workflow understanding; however, communication best practices remain limited by organizational and technological constraints. Systems-level changes must be prioritized to allow intentions toward collegial communication to thrive.