International partnerships have an important role in capacity building in global health, but frequently involve travel and its associated carbon footprint. The environmental impact of global health partnerships has not previously been quantified.
We conducted a retrospective internal audit of the environmental impact of air travel for the international education programs of the Canadian Anesthesiology Society’s International Education Fund (CASIEF). We compiled a comprehensive list of volunteer travel routes and used the International Civil Aviation Organization Carbon Emissions Calculator, which considers travel distance, passenger numbers, and average operational data for optimized estimates. Comparisons were made with average Canadian household emissions and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost from climate change consequences.
The total carbon dioxide emitted (CO2-e) for the Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Guyana CASIEF partnerships were 268.2, 60.7, and 52.0 tons, respectively. The DALYs cost of these programs combined is estimated to be as high as 1.1 years of life lost due to the effects of CO2-e. The mean daily carbon cost of the average Rwanda partnership was equivalent to daily emissions of 2.2 Canadians (or 383 Rwandans), for the Guyana partnership was equivalent to 1.6 Canadians (or 7.6 Guyanese people), and for the Ethiopia partnership was equivalent to 2.4 Canadians (or 252 Ethiopian people).
Air travel from these CASIEF partnerships resulted in 380.9 tons CO2-e but also enabled 5,601 volunteer days-in-country since 2014. The estimated environmental cost needs to be balanced against the impact of the programs. Regardless, carbon-reduction remains a priority, whether by discouraging premium class travel, organizing longer trips to reduce daily emissions, prioritizing remote support and virtual education, or developing partnerships closer to home.
The increasing complexity of the migration pathways of health and care workers is a critical consideration in the reporting requirements of international agreements designed to address their impacts. There are inherent challenges across these different agreements including reporting functions that are misaligned across different data collection tools, variable capacity of country respondents, and a lack of transparency or accountability in the reporting process. Moreover, reporting processes often neglect to recognize the broader intersectional gendered and racialized political economy of health and care worker migration. We argue for a more coordinated approach to the various international reporting requirements and processes that involve building capacity within countries to report on their domestic situation in response to these codes and conventions, and internationally to make such reporting result in more than simply the sum of their responses, but to reflect cross-national and transnational interactions and relationships. These strategies would better enable policy interventions along migration pathways that would more accurately recognize the growing complexity of health worker migration leading to more effective responses to mitigate its negative effects for migrants, source, destination, and transit countries. While recognizing the multiple layers of complexity, we nevertheless reaffirm the fact that countries still have an ethical responsibility to undertake health workforce planning in their countries that does not overly rely on the recruitment of migrant health and care workers.
An Integrated Community treatment of Childhood disease (ICCM)- focused intervention involving a large number of Patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs) was conducted by Society for Family Health Nigeria to improve management of childhood, malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea with an intervention approach focused on knowledge and skill improvement. The intervention was conducted in Kaduna and Ebonyi state; recruited and trained 15 interpersonal communication agents (IPCAs) who were saddled with the responsibility to sensitize and mobilize caregivers with children within the age bracket of 2 months to 5 years to our mapped PPMVs within the communities, on the account of Malaria, Diarrhea, and Pneumonia; while the IPCAs in return monitor the quality-of-service delivery. Following the intervention, the Society for Family health conducted a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions such as ICCM training, supervision and linkage to quality ICCM commodities, among PPMVs to achieve high levels of knowledge and performance in diagnosing and treating common childhood illnesses.
Longitudinal research (before and after study) was adopted for the study. From the 387 PPMVs recruited and trained by SFH, 165 PPMVs were systematically selected to participate in the study, before and after the implementation of the intervention. Using SPSS version 22, data from the observation and completed questionnaires were analyzed and a chi-square test was used to examine the associations between the categorical information collected prior and after the intervention. The analysis was conducted at 5% level of significance.
More than 50 % of the study participants were females (56.4%) and majority were either Junior community extension workers (35%) or Senior community extension worker (27%). About 21.8% trained PPMVs could not appropriately treat malaria in the first quarter of the intervention, however, there was a significant decrease to 1.8% in second quarter in the number of those that cannot appropriately diagnose and treat malaria. There was also a decrease in the number of those who could not treat cough and fast breathing from 47(28.5%) to 14(8.5%) in the second quarter and for diarrhea from 33.3% in the first quarter to 2.4% in the second quarter.
The study revealed a significant improvement in the quality of treatment provided by the trained PPMVs across the three disease areas. PPMVs in hard-to-reach areas should be trained and supported to continuously provide quality services to change the indices of under-5 mortality in Nigeria.
INTRODUCTION: In urban areas, numerous barriers exist for children and families to access needed behavioral health care. Compounding the general deficit of behavioral health workers in the United States is lack of access to culturally responsive care. Additional challenges include inherent racism and oppression in our health and human service systems and siloed approaches to behavioral health care training and practice. Integrated care is an emerging field nationally, yet training and education in integrated care is limited. This article provides an overview of the Child/Adolescent Interprofessional Practice and Education (CAIPE) program, a novel training approach in its first year of implementation for behavioral health students that prioritizes trauma-informed and social-justice oriented practice, integrated care, and interprofessional teamwork. METHOD: This study employs a mixed-methods approach to program evaluation. Data sources include program application materials (demographics and data related to clinical interests, student goals, and preparedness for interprofessional work). Data is also drawn from measures of student outcomes (self-efficacy navigating complex care patients, empathy, and complex care knowledge). RESULTS: Baseline data are reported for demographics, students' goals and interprofessional interests, and student outcomes. Information is also presented relevant to trainings conducted in the grant's first year and planned for subsequent years. Preliminary data and implementation suggest that the program has drawn diverse trainees who are committed to interprofessional, integrated care for underserved youth. DISCUSSION: Recruitment and program development challenges are discussed, along with grant goals' fit with students' interests and plans for future evaluation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
Objective: Interprofessional education (IPE) is when two or more students from different professions learn with, from, and about each other to improve collaboration and quality of healthcare. In October 2019, a first interprofessional education (IPE) day was held in the canton of Zurich with the aim of teaching interprofessional skills to participating students. Methodology: The IPE day was developed by an interprofessional team of students. After a short introduction, the roles and tasks of the professional groups involved were discussed. This was followed by two case studies with simulation persons and reflection rounds. For the evaluation of the day, 15 semi-structured interviews with students and lecturers were conducted and qualitatively evaluated by means of thematic analysis. Results: The students and lecturers had a very positive experience of the IPE day. Especially the participation of medical and pharmacy students, the practical case studies with simulation persons and the informal exchange during the breaks were appreciated. There was room for improvement in the development of role models. Through an open attitude and good communication, the students learned to know and appreciate the competencies of the other professional groups. All those interviewed wished for more interprofessional teaching opportunities and the students felt encouraged to apply what they had learned in their later professional practice. Conclusion: The IPE day could be carried out successfully and the didactic concept worked largely well. The evaluation provided subjective evidence that the students were able to improve the interprofessional competencies of teamwork, communication, openness, appreciation and reflectiveness. In the future, the IPE day should be anchored in the curricula.
Service user involvement in interprofessional education and collaborative practice remains limited despite the increasing push for this by governments and grant funding bodies. This rapid review investigated service user involvement in interprofessional education, practice, and research to determine factors that enable or hinder such involvement. Following the Cochrane and the World Health Organization's rapid review guidelines, a targeted search was undertaken in four databases. Subsequent to the screening processes, included papers were critically appraised, and extracted data were synthesized narratively. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies were related to interprofessional collaborative practice, as opposed to education and research. Service user involvement was more in the form of consultation and collaboration, as opposed to consumer-led partnerships. Enablers and barriers to service user involvement in IPECP were identified. Enablers included structure, the valuing of different perspectives, and relationships. Barriers included time and resources, undesirable characteristics, and relationships. This rapid review has added evidence to a swiftly expanding field, providing timely guidance. Healthcare workers can benefit from targeted training. Policy makers, healthcare organizations, and governments can investigate strategies to mitigate the time and resource challenges that impede service user involvement in IPECP.
Despite increasing international demand for interprofessional education (IPE) in health care, there remains limited understanding of the kind of faculty development (FD) activities needed. This paper reports on a protocol for a systematic review to answer the question: What are the available FD activities for IPE facilitators, and which are more effective? The review aims to identify principles and methods to develop competent facilitators in IPE and to identify the implications and effects of FD for IPE concerning individuals, organizations, education, and health practice. Literature was identified through systematic searches in the electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Eric (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Scopus, and Web of Science. There will be no restrictions on language or publication period. Screening of potential studies will be completed independently by at least two reviewers. The research quality of studies will be assessed for methodological rigor using established instruments based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Search results will be summarized using the PRISMA flow diagram. The proposed review seeks to provide clarity on the evidence base of FD for IPE facilitators, to strengthen future design and delivery of FD activities, and to enable ongoing success of this educational model.
Interprofessional education (IPE) prepares healthcare students for collaboration in their future careers. The purpose of this study was to determine which aspects of the IPE Program in Anatomy at McMaster University contributed to the development of healthcare student's interprofessional skills. Q-methodology was used to identify the students' common viewpoints of the IPE experience. A total of 26/28 (93%) of students in the course from the medical, nursing, midwifery, physician assistant, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy programs participated in this study. Students were asked to sort a Q-sample of 43 statements about the IPE dissection course derived from previous qualitative studies of the program. Using the centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation, three salient factors (groups) emerged, namely: (1) Anatomy IPE Enthusiasts, (2) Practical IPE Advocates, and (3) Skeptical IPE Anatomists. The Anatomy IPE Enthusiasts believed that students from different disciplines brought unique anatomical knowledge and each group member guided others through difficult material. The Practical IPE Advocates expressed that they would be stronger advocates for interprofessional teams in the future because of the course. The Skeptical IPE Anatomists strongly disagreed that learning with students from different disciplines helped them gain an understanding of their roles in the context of other healthcare professionals and felt that there was little benefit from the IPE program compared to other non-interprofessional programs. These findings about student attitudes are critical to drive an evidence-based evolution of the IPE dissection course, since students' perceptions can have a profound influence on interprofessional collaboration in the workplace.
BACKGROUND: Lay health workers (LHWs) can support the HIV response by bridging gaps in human resources for health. Innovative strategies are needed to expand LHW programs in many low- and middle-income countries. Youth Health Africa (YHA) is a novel LHW approach implemented in South Africa that places young adults needing work experience in one-year non-clinical internships at health facilities to support HIV programs (e.g., as HIV testers, data clerks). While research suggests YHA can increase HIV service delivery, we need to understand healthcare worker perceptions to know if this is an acceptable and appropriate approach to strengthen human resources for health and healthcare delivery. METHODS: We conducted a convergent mixed methods study to assess healthcare worker acceptance and perceived appropriateness of YHA as implemented in Gauteng and North West provinces, South Africa and identify issues promoting or hindering high acceptability and perceived appropriateness. To do this, we adapted the Johns Hopkins Measure of Acceptability and Appropriateness to survey healthcare workers who supervised interns, which we analyzed descriptively. In parallel, we interviewed frontline healthcare workers who worked alongside YHA interns and conducted an inductive, thematic analysis. We merged quantitative and qualitative results using the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability to understand what promotes or hinders high acceptance and appropriateness of YHA. RESULTS: Sixty intern supervisors responded to the survey (91% response rate), reporting an average score of 3.5 for acceptability and 3.6 for appropriateness, on a four-point scale. Almost all 33 frontline healthcare workers interviewed reported the program to be highly acceptable and appropriate. Perceptions that YHA was mutually beneficial, easy to integrate into facilities, and helped facilities be more successful promoted a strong sense of acceptability/appropriateness amongst healthcare workers, but this was tempered by the burden of training interns and limited program communication. Overall, healthcare workers were drawn to the altruistic nature of YHA. CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers in South Africa believed YHA was an acceptable and appropriate LHW program to support HIV service delivery because its benefits outweighed its costs. This may be an effective, innovative approach to strengthen human resources for HIV services and the broader health sector.
INTRODUCTION: The "Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030" was adopted by the 69th World Health Assembly. Among its objectives is the strengthening of data on human resources for health, to inform evidence-based policy decisions. These data include the course completion and drop-out rates, to inform mechanisms that support recruitment and retention. OBJECTIVE: This paper sought to evaluate trends in course completion and drop-out rates of health workforce students. However, original data were only obtained for pre-service medical students, but no other health worker occupational groups. METHODS: A mixed method approach was employed to obtain data presented in this paper. A structured questionnaire was sent out to targeted medical training institutions, regulatory bodies, and National Medical Associations, supplemented by a web and literature search for existing studies or data reports. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2010. RESULTS: Eight previously published studies were identified originating from six countries, with course completion rates ranging from 84% in Pakistan to 98.6% in the United States of America, while the drop-out rates ranged from 1.4% in the United States of America to 16% in Pakistan. An analysis of pre-service medical students in Australia and New Zealand, revealed average course completion rates of 93.3% and 96.9%, respectively, and average drop-out rates of 6.7% and 3.1%, respectively. An analysis of pre-service medical students from Nigeria, revealed an average course completion rate of 88.3%, and an average drop-out rate of 11.7%. Data were not readily available for most countries targeted during the research, either because of lack of existing mechanisms for collation of required data or restrictions making such data publicly unavailable and inaccessible. CONCLUSIONS: Drop-out rate for pre-service medical students varies across countries with some countries recording higher drop-out rates, which raise significant concerns about the capacity of such countries to scale up production of human resources for health. Data that monitor both course completion and drop-out rates, and seek to provide insight into reasons for observed numbers, can inform mechanisms to address the causes of course drop-out and support student retention.
COVID-19, the novel coronavirus, has posed a major threat to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to inadequate health infrastructure and human resources. Ethiopia, a low-income country with the second largest population in Africa, has coordinated a strategic response, leveraging existing infrastructure and health systems and mobilizing public health professionals and specialist expert physicians for a multifaceted, unified government approach and adaptive response. Resource limitations, particularly in critical care, have still posed challenges, but the public health and clinical interventions thus far have prevented the catastrophic toll that many predicted. As the pandemic continues, Ethiopia expects to use a triple care model integrated at all levels, consisting of COVID-19 care, isolation care for suspected cases, and essential health services, and urges intensified non-pharmaceutical interventions alongside equitable global vaccine distribution as the ultimate answers to pandemic control. This paper draws on existing data, national planning and guidelines, and expertise from health leadership to describe this response in hopes of providing an example of how future large-scale health challenges might be faced in LMICs, using Ethiopia's successes and challenges in facing the pandemic. COVID-19, le nouveau coronavirus, a représenté une menace majeure pour les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire (LMIC) en raison de l'insuffisance des infrastructures de santé et des ressources humaines. L'Éthiopie, un pays à faible revenu dont la population est la deuxième plus importante d'Afrique, a coordonné une réponse stratégique, en tirant parti des infrastructures et des systèmes de santé existants et en mobilisant des professionnels de la santé publique et des médecins experts spécialisés pour une approche gouvernementale unifiée à multiples facettes et une réponse adaptative. Les ressources limitées, notamment en matière de soins intensifs, ont encore posé des problèmes, mais les interventions cliniques et de santé publique menées jusqu'à présent ont permis d'éviter le bilan catastrophique que beaucoup prédisaient. Alors que la pandémie se poursuit, l'Éthiopie prévoit d'utiliser un modèle de soins triple intégré à tous les niveaux, composé de soins COVID-19, de soins d'isolement pour les cas suspects et de services de santé essentiels, et préconise l'intensification des interventions non pharmaceutiques parallèlement à une distribution équitable des vaccins à l'échelle mondiale comme réponses ultimes au contrôle de la pandémie. Cet article s'appuie sur les données existantes, la planification et les directives nationales, et l'expertise des responsables de la santé pour décrire cette réponse dans l'espoir de fournir un exemple de la manière dont les futurs défis sanitaires à grande échelle pourraient être relevés dans les LMIC, en utilisant les succès et les défis de l'Éthiopie face à la pandémie.
Sub-Saharan African countries health systems are generally faced with shortages and inequitable distribution of qualified health workers. The application of provider-population ratio or fixed staff establishments, not considering variation in workload, given contextual variations in service utilization rates, cannot adequately match the human resource needs of different health facilities. The Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method uses workload to determine staffing needs in a given facility. The aim of this study was to assess the current workload and staffing needs of maternal and child health services in 12 primary healthcare facilities from Burkina Faso, Niger, and Cote d'Ivoire. We employed the WISN methodology, using document reviews, in-depth interviews with health providers, and observations, to obtain the data needed for estimating the required number of staff in a given facility. Then, we calculated both the WISN difference (current-required staff), and the WISN ratio (current staff/required staff). Using the WISN ratio, we assessed the work pressure that health workers experience. The results showed a shortage of health workers in most services in Cote d'Ivoire and Niger (WISN ratio <1), in contrast to Burkina Faso where services were either adequately staffed or overstaffed (WISN ratio â©¾1). The workload pressure was generally high or very high in Cote d'Ivoire, while in Niger, it was very high in maternity services but rather low in dispensary ones. There was also a geographic discrepancy in health workers staffing, rural areas services being more understaffed, with a higher workload pressure as compared to urban areas ones. This study results strengthens the body of knowledge on the shortage of health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa French speaking countries. Policies and strategies to increase students training capacities and the application of regular WISN studies for a better staff distribution are necessary to address the human resource needs of health facilities in these countries.
Background: Despite the significant number of Indonesian nurses joining the Japanese National Nursing Licensure Examination (JNNLE), only a few of those were successful. Indonesian nurses as one of active migration player to Japan's market remain a critical support in supporting human resources for health in Japan. However, the successful nurses' perspectives have yet to be understood entirely. This study aimed to explore the experiences of Indonesian nurses who successfully passed the JNNLE. Methods: This study used a descriptive qualitative approach. The participants were twenty Indonesian nurses who have passed the licensure examination. This study was carried out by semi-structured interviews conducted virtually. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Five themes were discovered in this study: language ability as the key to succeeding in the exam, strategies to passing the exam, supporting resources as factors to increase the passing rate, understanding the nature of nursing exam, and internal motivation to be recognized as a professional nurse in a foreign country. Conclusion: Indonesian nurses who passed the Japanese national nursing licensure examination tend to deploy planned strategies. Honing the language skills while working and living in Japan is very important, while structured support systems in the hospital, government, and social network are imperative to learning the new knowledge in the area of nursing care in Japan.
BACKGROUND: Adequate Human Resources for Health is indispensable to achieving Universal Health Coverage and physicians play a leading role. Nigeria with low physician-population ratio, is experiencing massive exodus of physicians. This study investigated emigration intention of physicians, the factors influencing it and discussed the implications to guide policy formulation and reforms, curtail the trend and safeguard the country's health system. METHODS: Through cross-sectional survey, 913 physicians from 37 States were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire using Google form shared via WhatsApp and Telegram forums of Nigeria Medical Association. Data were analysed with IBM-SPSS version-25 and charts were created with Microsoft-Excel. Chi-square and multiple regression tests were done with p-value set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents is 37.6 ± 7.9 years; majority of them are males (63.2%), married (75.5%) with postgraduate qualifications (54.1%) and working in public health facilities (85.4%). Whereas 13% and 19.3% are, respectively, satisfied with their work and willing to continue practice in Nigeria, 43.9% want to emigrate and 36.8% are undecided about future location of their practice. The commonest reasons for emigration are poor remuneration (91.3%), rising insecurity (79.8%) and inadequate diagnostic facilities (61.8%). Physicians working in public health facilities are 2.5 times less satisfied than their counterparts in non-public sector (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). Physicians in their thirties, forties and fifties are 3.5 (95% CI = 1.5-8.0), 5.5 (95% CI = 2.1-14.5) and 13.8 (95% CI = 3.9-49.3) times, respectively, more willing to retain practice in Nigeria than those younger and those satisfied with their work are 4.7 (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.9-7.4) times more willing to practice in Nigeria than those not satisfied. CONCLUSION: Majority of Nigerian physicians want to emigrate for professional practice and top among the push factors are poor remuneration, rising insecurity and inadequate diagnostic facilities. The observed trend portends danger to the country's health system due to the foreseeable negative consequences of physician deficit to the system. We recommend upward review of physician remuneration, a root cause analysis of insecurity to determine workable preventive measures and increased funding of the health sector to improve the diagnostic infrastructure, retain physicians and save the health system from imminent collapse.
Background: The equitable distribution of a skilled health workforce is critical to health service delivery, and Kaduna state has taken significant steps to revamp the primary health care system to ensure access to health care for its populace. However, some of these investments are yet to yield the desired outcomes due to workforce shortages and inequitable distribution of those available. Methods: A Workload Indicator for Staffing Need study was conducted at the primary health care level in Kaduna state. The study focused on estimating staffing requirements; Nurse/Midwife and Community Health Worker practitioners; Community Health Officer, Community Health Extension Worker and Junior Community Health Extension Worker, in all government prioritized primary health care facilities. Ten focal primary health care facilities in Kaduna North Local Government Area were included in the study. Results: Findings revealed a shortage of Nurses/Midwives and Community Health Workers across the study facilities. For the Nurse/Midwife staffing category, 9/10 PHCs have a Workload Indicator for Staffing Need ratio < 1; indicating that the number of staff in the Nurse/Midwife category is insufficient to cope with the workload. In two of the ten primary health care facilities, there is an excess in the number of CHWs available; a Workload Indicator for Staffing Need ratio > 1 was calculated. Conclusions: The Workload Indicator for Staffing Need study highlights the staffing needs in government prioritized primary health care facilities in Kaduna state. This evidence establishes the basis for the application of an evidence-based approach to determining staffing needs across the primary health care sector in the State, to guide workforce planning strategies and future investments in the health sector. The World Health Organisation Workload Indicator for Staffing Need tool is useful in estimating staffing needs required to cope with workload pressures, particularly in a resources-constrained environment like Kaduna State.
The Theory of Change (ToC) approach is one of the methodologies that the Lancet Citizens' Commission has chosen to build a roadmap to achieving Universal Healthcare (UHC) in India in the next 10 years. The work of the Citizens' Commission is organized around five workstreams: Finance, Human Resources for Health (HRH), Citizens' Engagement, Governance, and Technology. Five ToC workshops were conducted, one for each workstream. Individual workshop outputs were then brought together in two cross-workstream workshops where a sectoral Theory of Change for UHC was derived. Seventy-four participants, drawn from the Commission or invited for their expertise, and representing diverse stakeholders and sectors concerned with UHC, contributed to these workshops. A reimagined healthcare system achieves (1) enhanced transparency, accountability, and responsiveness; (2) improved quality of health services; (3) accessible, comprehensive, connected, and affordable care for all; (4) equitable, people-centered and safe health services; and (5) trust in the health system. For a mixed system like India's, achieving these high ideals will require all actors, public, private and civil society, to collaborate and bring about this transformation. During the consultation, paradigm shifts emerged, which were structural or systemic assumptions that were deemed necessary for the realization of all interventions. Critical points of consensus also emerged from the workshops, such as the need for citizen-centricity, greater efficiency in the use of public finances for health care, shifting to team-based managed care, empowerment of frontline health workers, the appropriate use of technology across all phases of patient care, and moving toward an articulation of positive health and wellbeing. Critical areas of contention that remained related to the role of the private sector, especially around financing and service delivery. Few issues for further consultation and research were noted, such as payment for performance across both public and private sectors, the use of accountability metrics across both public and private sectors, and the strategies for addressing structural barriers to realizing the proposed paradigm shifts. As the ToCs were developed in expert groups, citizens' consultations and consultations with administrative leaders were recommended to refine and ground the ToC, and therefore the roadmap to realize UHC, in people's lived reality.
Equitable geographic distribution of doctors is crucial for the provision of an accessible and efficient health service system. This study aimed to assess the effects of doctor allocation by the Thai Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in relation to equity distribution.
This descriptive study compared secondary data on the number of doctors, gross provincial products (GPP), and populations of 76 Thai provinces for the years 2017 and 2021. The ratio of doctors to 1000 population was used to measure the spatial distribution of doctors by province. Lorenz curves and the Gini coefficient were used to determine the equity of doctor distribution.
The results showed that the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.191 in 2017 to 0.03 in 2021 indicating that the equitable distribution of doctors improved after the MoPH commenced allocating newly graduated doctors according to health utilization in 2017. Compared to 2017, the percentage changes in the number of doctors were higher in provinces with lower doctor densities and in provinces with higher GPPs.
The equitable distribution of doctors in Thailand was affected by two main causes: the allocation of newly graduated doctors by the MoPH and the turnover rate of existing doctors.
There is a strong and wide consensus that Pakistan must pursue universal health coverage (UHC) attainment as the driving force for achieving sustainable development goals by 2030. Nevertheless, several institutional and socioeconomic challenges may hinder the progress toward UHC.
It is important that the health system of Pakistan must be transformed to strengthen all three dimensions of UHC i.e. maximizing the population covered, increasing the range of services offered, and reducing the cost-sharing. To make UHC dream a reality in Pakistan, there are some pre-requisites to meet upfront: a) budgetary allocation for health as percentage of GDP must be increased; b) health system’s readiness especially in the public sector ought to improve in terms of human resource and availability of essential services; c) safety nets for health must continue regardless of the change in the political regimes; d) decrease the reliance on donors’ funding; and e) accountability to be ensured across the board for service providers, managers, administrators and policymakers in the health system.
COVID-19 pandemic has revealed some major gaps in the health system’s capacity to deliver equitable healthcare, which is a cornerstone to achieving the UHC agenda. The priority-setting process will need to be aligned with the SDGs to ensure that the agenda for action towards 2030 is comprehensively addressed and successfully accomplished preferably before, but hopefully not beyond the targeted dates.