Uso de la simulación clínica para entrenar equipos en el manejo de conflictos durante los cuidados en salud: una revisión sistemática exploratoria

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Objetivo:Explorar y analizar el uso de la simulación clínica para la formación y/o capacitación de equipos clínicos en el manejo y resolución de conflictos en salud, mediante una revisión sistemática exploratoria.Método:Se realizó una búsqueda con los términos: clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS y DOCUMED. Los límites fueron el uso de la simulación clínica orientado a la formación en el manejo de conflictos en estudiantes o profesionales de la salud, con uso de escenarios clínicos, excluyendo aquellos con más de 20 años. No se consideró excluyente el uso o no de debriefing, ni el uso de simulación junto a otras metodologías. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo.Resultados:Se obtuvieron diez artículos, mayoritariamente cuasi-experimentales, en los cuales la simulación clínica se utiliza prioritariamente de forma interprofesional para la capacitación en manejo de conflictos clínicos, en conjunto con otras metodologías tales como role play, práctica reflexiva y uso de recursos audiovisuales, lo cual sugiere aumentar su efectividad. Se han recreado situaciones como discrepancia en la toma de decisiones y manejo de errores médicos, buscando aplicar competencias de mediación, comunicación y habilidades emocionales, entre otras, seguidas de debriefing. La aplicación de escalas validadas y métodos convencionales revelan un impacto positivo en la satisfacción, percepción y aprendizaje de los participantes, así como en la transferencia y disminución de errores atribuidos a la atención. Objective:To assess and analyze the impact of clinical simulation as a training tool in healthcare teams ability to resolve and manage conflicts, through an exploratory systematic review.Methods:A structured literature review was performed with the terms clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS and DOCUMED. Articles were considered if they involved clinical simulation oriented to training of healthcare professionals or trainees in conflict management, using clinical scenarios, and excluding those studies older than 20 years. Absence of debriefing was not considered an exclusion criterion, neither the use of simulation along with other methodologies. A quantitative analysis was performed.Results:10 articles were retrieved, mostly with quasi-experimental designs, in which clinical simulation was designed as an interprofessional training and was used with multiple other methodologies like roleplay, reflexive practice and audiovisual aids, strategy that suggest an increase its effectivity. Different scenarios have been recreated, like decision-making divergences and management of medical errors, in order to apply the competences of mediation, communication, emotional skills among others, and followed by debriefing. The use of validated scales and conventional assessment methods reveal a positive impact on satisfaction, perception and learning of students, as well as transfer to clinical practice and decrease in errors.

Appraisal of the entrustable professional activities interprofessional team member domain performed by North Dakota pharmacists

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of the interprofessional team member (ITM) domain of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) by North Dakota pharmacists across practice sites, roles in practice, and by preceptor status. METHODS: Survey methods were used to characterize the self-reported frequency with which pharmacists undertake core EPAs and supporting tasks in the ITM domain. The survey was administered to registered pharmacists practicing in North Dakota (n=990) during the fall of 2018, of which 457 (46.1%) responded. After eliminating responses with incomplete or missing information, 119 responses were available for analysis. RESULTS: For the overall EPA ITM domain, "Collaborate as a member of an interprofessional team population" pharmacists reported performing these activities an average (mean) of 3.3 times per month (SD=2.3). Within this domain, the highest reported example activity was "Use setting appropriate communication skills when interacting with others" (mean=4.1, SD 1.8), followed by "Communicate a patient's medication-related problem(s) to another health professional" (mean=3.3, SD 2.0), and "Contribute medication-related expertise to the team's work" (mean=3.1, SD=2.2). ITM domain and supporting example activities were performed at a greater rate in hospitals, community health centers and long-term-care facilities. For most items, preceptors reported a greater use of activities, than did non-preceptors. CONCLUSIONS: North Dakota pharmacists currently complete tasks outlined in the ITM domain of the EPAs, although their contributions are varied by task, role, and preceptor status No disponible

Disposição para colaboração interprofissional de estudantes de graduação

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Objetivo: Analisar a Disposição para a colaboração interprofissional de estudantes de graduação. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado com 82 estudantes de dez cursos de graduação de uma universidade pública. A intenção para a colaboração interprofissional foi verificada através da Escala Jefferson de Atitudes Relacionadas à Colaboração Interprofissional. Resultados: A amostra foi composta na sua maioria por indivíduos do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 20 anos, entre o 2º e 4º semestre da graduação. O escore médio da escala utilizada foi de 129,3 pontos. Conclusão: No âmbito da educação, principalmente de nível superior, muitas iniciativas de ensinoaprendizagem são realizadas de forma coletiva, o que favorece a percepção positiva para o trabalho coletivo. A disposição para a colaboração interprofissional dos estudantes apresentou alto escore; não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os diferentes cursos de graduação, sexo e a fase de formação(AU) Objective: To analyze the willingness for interprofessional collaboration of undergraduate students. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out with 82 students from ten undergraduate courses at a public university. The intention for interprofessional collaboration was verified through the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Related to Interprofessional Collaboration. Results: The sample was composed mostly of female individuals, in the age group of 20 years, between the 2nd and 4th semester of graduation. The average score of the scale used was 129.3 points. Conclusion: In the scope of education, mainly at higher education level, many teaching - learning initiatives are carried out collectively, which favors a positive perception for collective work. The willingness for interprofessional collaboration of students presented a high score; there was no statistically significant difference between the different undergraduate courses, sex and the training phase.(AU) Objetivo: Analizar la voluntad de colaboración interprofesional de estudiantes de graduación. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, realizado con 82 estudiantes de diez carreras de pregrado de una universidad pública. La intención de colaboración interprofesional se verificó a través de la Escala de actitudes de Jefferson relacionadas con la colaboración interprofesional. Resultados: La muestra estuvo compuesta mayoritariamente por individuos del sexo femenino, en el grupo de edad de 20 años, entre el 2º y 4º semestre de egreso. La puntuación media de la escala utilizada fue de 129,3 puntos. Conclusión: En el ámbito de la educación, principalmente a nivel de educación superior, muchas iniciativas de enseñanza-aprendizaje se llevan a cabo de forma colectiva, lo que favorece una percepción positiva del trabajo colectivo. La disposición a la colaboración interprofesional de los estudiantes presentó una puntuación alta; no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los diferentes cursos de pregrado, sexo y la fase de formación(AU)

Formação docente para o ensino da educação interprofissional

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
RESUMO Objetivo: relatar experiências das autoras em relação à formação docente para o ensino da Educação Interprofissional. Desenvolvimento: relato de experiência a partir da observação direta das atividades de docentes de duas universidades públicas do estado da Bahia, entre 2014 e 2019. Os dados foram registrados em diário de campo, organizados por aproximação temática e analisados em suas partes e nas relações entre a formação docente e o ensino da Educação Interprofissional. Identificou-se três dimensões: inquietações e reflexões nos campos práticos; movimento de aproximação ao ensino da Educação Interprofissional; e movimento na pós-graduação. Conclusão: as experiências vividas na formação docente contribuíram para o ensino, tendo em vista a Educação Interprofissional, por suscitarem reflexões sobre os movimentos formativos do docente em direção à interprofissionalidade e constatações acerca das possibilidades formativas do docente. Espera-se que tais experiências sejam continuadas e aplicadas nos diferentes espaços de ensino RESUMEN Objetivo: relatar experiencias de las autoras en lo que se refiere a la formación docente para la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional. Desarrollo: relato de experiencia a partir de la observación directa de las actividades de docentes de dos universidades públicas del estado de Bahía, entre 2014 y 2019. Los datos se registraron en un diario de campo, se organizaron por enfoque temático y se analizaron en sus partes y en las relaciones entre la formación docente y la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional. Se identificaron tres dimensiones: preocupaciones y reflexiones en los ámbitos prácticos; movimiento para abordar la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional; y movimiento en la formación de postgrado. Conclusión: las experiencias vividas en la formación docente han contribuido a la enseñanza, con vistas a la Educación Interprofesional, haciendo suscitar reflexiones sobre los movimientos formativos del docente hacia la interprofesionalidad y hallazgos sobre las posibilidades formativas del docente. Se espera que estas experiencias tengan continuidad y se apliquen en los diferentes espacios de enseñanza. ABSTRACT Objective: To report the authors' experiences regarding the training of faculty members for Interprofessional Education teaching. Development: Experience report using direct observation of the activities of professors from two public universities in the state of Bahia, between 2014 and 2019. The data were recorded in a field diary, organized by thematic approach and analyzed in its parts and in the relationships between the training of faculty members and the teaching of Interprofessional Education. Three dimensions were identified: concerns and reflections in practical activities; movement towards the teaching of Interprofessional Education; and movement in postgraduate health education. Conclusion: The experiences in the training of faculty members contributed to teaching, regarding Interprofessional Education, by raising reflections on the movements for training faculty members for interprofessional education and findings on the possibilities of the training of professors. We expect that these initiatives are implemented on a permanent basis and in different teaching spaces.

O PET-Saúde Interprofissionalidade e as ações em tempos de pandemia: perspectivas docentes

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
O Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para Saúde (PET-Saúde) é uma política indutora que fomenta o aprendizado por vivências problematizadoras nos locais de trabalho em saúde com foco na interprofissionalidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi relatar a experiência do PET-Saúde Interprofissionalidade durante a pandemia de Covid-19, na perspectiva docente. Desenvolver o PET-Saúde com estudantes, preceptores, equipes dos serviços e usuários demandou (re)descobrir possibilidades das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e o aprendizado da produção de "novas presenças" sem desistir da ação coletiva, participativa e composta pelos diferentes saberes. Apreendeu-se o desenvolvimento de competências como escuta qualificada para resolução de conflitos, comunicação interprofissional e liderança colaborativa. Este PET-Saúde mostrou-se um disparador na formação em saúde, conectando universidade, rede de saúde e comunidade; e contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de competências colaborativas e um espaço de acolhimento para as situações vivenciadas.(AU) El Programa de Educación por el Trabajo para Salud (PET-Saúde) es una política inductora que fomenta el aprendizaje por vivencias problematizadoras en los locales de trabajo en salud con enfoque en la Interprofesionalidad. El objetivo fue relatar la experiencia del PET-Saúde Interprofesionalidad durante la pandemia de Covid-19, desde la perspectiva docente. Desarrollar el PET-Saúde con estudiantes, preceptores, equipos de los servicios y usuarios demandó (re)descubrir posibilidades de las tecnologías de información y comunicación, aprendiendo a producir "nuevas presencias", sin desistir de la acción colectiva, participativa, compuesta por los diferentes saberes. Se aprendió a desarrollar competencias tales como escuchar de forma calificada para la resolución de conflictos, la comunicación interprofesional y el liderazgo colaborativo. Este PET-Saúde se mostró un gatillo en la formación en salud, conectando universidad, red de salud y comunidad, contribuyendo al desarrollo de competencias colaborativas y un espacio de acogida para las situaciones vividas.(AU) The Program 'Education through Work for Health' (PET-Health) is a nudging policy that provides learning through problematizing experiences in health workplaces, with a focus on interprofessionality. The aim was to report the experience of PET-Health Interprofessionality during the Covid-19 pandemic, from the teachers' perspective. The development of PET-Health with students, tutors, teams from the health system and users demanded, (re) discovering possibilities of information and communication technologies, learning to produce "new presences", without giving up the collective, participatory action, composed by different knowledge. There was learning of development of skills such as qualified listening for conflict resolution, interprofessional communication and collaborative leadership. This PET-Health proved to be a triggering event towards health education, connecting university, health network and community, and contributed to the development of collaborative skills and constituted a welcoming space for the situations experienced.(AU)

Aprendizaje interprofesional en los internados de las carreras de la salud del Hospital Josefina Martínez

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mar, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Introducción: las dinámicas de atención en salud requieren que los profesionales que componen el equipo de salud trabajen en for-ma colaborativa. Sin embargo, durante su formación, las oportunidades de aprendizaje con otras disciplinas son escasas. Se reportan los resultados del primer proyecto para promover el aprendizaje interprofesional en los internos que rotan por el Hospital Josefina Martínez. Método: de marzo a julio 2018, se realizó un taller constituido por dos sesiones, en cada rotación de internado. Participaron internos de cinco carreras en forma conjunta (kinesiología, odontología, nutrición, fonoaudiología y terapia ocupacional). Se adaptó la encuesta de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, para ser aplicada antes y después de cada taller. Se calcularon las medianas, rangos intercuartílicos (Q1; Q3y se compararon los puntajes mediante test de Wilcoxon. Resultados: hubo una disposición positiva inicial al aprendizaje interprofesional, con mejoría significativa después de los talleres en todas las dimensiones de la encuesta: Trabajo en equipo y colaboración (<0,001), trabajo centrado en el paciente (<0,001), y sentido de identidad profesional (<0,05). La diferencia del puntaje global de la encuesta también fue significativa (<0,001). Conclusiones: se demostró un cambio favorable y significativo en las respuestas de los internos después de los talleres, en todas las dimensiones de la encuesta. En los comentarios, destacaron la relevancia de aprender con estudiantes de otras carreras, describiendo que aumentó su conocimiento sobre éstas y reforzando el impacto que dicha integración tiene en mejorar la atención y resolución de problemas en salud. Background: The dynamics of health care require that the health professionals work collaboratively; however, during their training, learning opportunities with other disciplines are infrequent. The results of the first project to promote interprofessional learning in the clinical internship at Hospital Josefina Martínez are reported. Methods: From March to July 2018, two workshops for each internship rotation were carried. Students from fivecareers participated together (Kinesiology, Dentistry, Nutrition, Speech Therapy, and Occupa-tional Therapy). The readiness to interprofessional scale survey was adapted, to be applied before and after each workshop. Medians, interquartile range (Q1; Q3) were calculated, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results. Results: There was an initial po-sitive readiness for interprofessional learning, with a significant improvement in all the dimensions of the survey, after the workshops: Teamwork and collaboration (<.001), patient-centered care (<.001), and sense of professional identity (<.05). The differences from the overall survey were also significant (<0.001). Conclusions: A favorable change was demonstrated in the responses of the students after the workshops, overalland in all the dimensions of the survey. In the comments, the students highlighted the relevance of learning with students from other careers, describing that it increased their knowledge about different professions and strengthening the impact that this integration has in improving attention and resolving health problems.

Community Health Workers and Stigma Associated with Mental Illness: An Integrative Literature Review

Abstract

Community health workers (CHWs) are facilitators between health services and service users, providing essential and effective support to those seeking health care. However, stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness also exist among CHWs and are based on prejudicial and biasedopinions. This integrative review critically assessed evidence regarding CHWs approaches for addressing mental health issues. In total, 19 studies were included in this review. The results revealed that CHWs have limited knowledge about mental illness and also stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness or substance use problems. Despite feeling unprepared, CHWs are favorable resources for mental health care and can contribute to reducing stigma due to the similarities they share with the communities that they serve. Task-sharing between health professionals and CHWs is an important strategy to improve access to health services and reducing stigma towards people with mental illness, provided that receive adequate training to perform the duties.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The impact of training on self-reported performance in reproductive, maternal, and newborn health service delivery among healthcare workers in Tanzania: a baseline- and endline-survey

Abstract Background

Delivery of quality reproductive health services has been documented to depend on the availability of healthcare workers who are adequately supported with appropriate training. However, unmet training needs among healthcare workers in reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) in low-income countries remain disproportionately high. This study investigated the effectiveness of training with onsite clinical mentorship towards self-reported performance in RMNH among healthcare workers in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

Methods

The study used a quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-intervention evaluation strategy. The baseline was compared with two endline groups: those with intervention (training and onsite mentorship) and those without. The differences among the three groups in the sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed by using chi-square test for categorical variables, independent-sample t-test for continuous variables and Mann–Whitney U test for ordinal or skewed continuous data. The independent sample t-test was used to determine the effect of the intervention by comparing the computed self-reported performance on RMNH services between the intervention and control groups. The paired-samples t-test was used to measure the differences between before and after intervention groups. Significance was set at a 95% confidence interval with p ≤ 0.05.

Results

The study included a sample of 216 participants with before and after intervention groups comprising of 95 (44.0%) and 121 (56.0%) in the control group. The comparison between before and after intervention groups revealed a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in all the dimensions of the self-reported performance scores. However, the comparison between intervention groups and controls indicated a statistical significant difference on intra-operative care (t = 3.10, df = 216, p = 0.002), leadership skills (t = 1.85, df = 216, p = 0.050), Comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care (CEMONC) (t = 34.35, df = 216, p ≤ 0.001), and overall self-reported performance in RMNH (t = 3.15, df = 216, p = 0.002).

Conclusions

This study revealed that the training and onsite clinical mentorship to have significant positive changes in self-reported performance in a wide range of RMNH services especially on intra-operative care, leadership skills and CEMONC. However, further studies with rigorous designs are warranted to evaluate the long-term effect of such training programs on RMNH outcomes.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Lessons learned from the history of postgraduate medical training in Japan: from disease-centred care to patient-centred care in an aging society

Abstract Background

Health workers, the core of health service delivery and a key driver of progress towards universal health coverage, must be available in sufficient numbers and distributed fairly to serve the entire population. In addition, the planning and management of the health workforce must be responsive to the changing needs of society, including changes in age structure and epidemiology. Considering these issues, this paper examines in historical perspective the evolution of postgraduate medical training and practice in Japan, from the late nineteenth century to the present.

Main text

When the first medical schools were established in the country towards the end of the nineteenth century, Japan was a largely agrarian society, with a population of about 30 million and an average life expectancy of 30–40 years. During the twentieth century, life expectancy and the national population continued to increase in a context of rapid economic growth. Since the 1980s, another demographic transition has occurred: low fertility rates and an aging society. As a result, the inputs and skills required from health professionals have changed considerably over time, posing new challenges to the national health sector and the management of human resources for health.

Conclusions

The case of Japan offers valuable lessons for other countries experiencing a rapid epidemiological and demographic transition. To provide medical care that meets health priorities in the communities, we must consider not only the training of specialists, but also ensure the availability of a large cadre of physicians who possess basic skills and can provide patient-centred care. Furthermore, the Japanese experience shows that a highly hierarchical system and organisational culture are ill-suited to respond quickly to the changing demands of society.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Clinical ethical practice and associated factors in healthcare facilities in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Abstract Background

Clinical ethical practice (CEP) is required for healthcare workers (HCWs) to improve health-care delivery. However, there are gaps between accepted ethical standards and CEP in Ethiopia. There have been limited studies conducted on CEP in the country. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of CEP among healthcare workers in healthcare facilities in Ethiopia.

Method

From February to April 2021, a mixed-method study was conducted in 24 health facilities, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative (survey questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) data were collected. For quantitative and qualitative data analysis, Stata version 14 and Atlas.ti version 7 were utilized. Multiple logistic regression and thematic analysis for quantative and qualitative respectively used.

Results

From a total of 432 study participants, 407 HCWs were involved in the quantitative analysis, 36 participants were involved in five focus group discussions (FGDs), and eleven key informant interviews (KIIs) were involved in the qualitative analysis. The score of good CEP was 32.68%. Similarly, the scores of good knowledge and attitude were 33.50% and 25.31%, respectively. In the multiple logistic regression models, satisfaction with the current profession, availability of functional CECs, compassionate leaders, previously thought clinical ethics in pre-service education and good attitude were significant factors associated with CEP. Among these significant factors, knowledge, compassionate leaders, poor infrastructure, a conducive environment and positive attitudes were also determinants of CEP according to qualitative findings.

Conclusions

The CEP in health care services in Ethiopia is low. Satisfaction with the current profession, functional CECs, positive attitude, compassionate leaders and previously thought clinical ethics were significant factors associated with CEP. The Ministry of Health (MoH) should integrate interventions by considering CECs, compassionate leadership, and positive attitudes and enhance the knowledge of health professionals. Additionally, digitalization, intersectoral collaboration and institutionalization are important for promoting CEP.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Development assistance for human resources for health, 1990-2020.

BACKGROUND: Investing in the health workforce is key to achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. However, achieving these Goals requires addressing a projected global shortage of 18 million health workers (mostly in low- and middle-income countries). Within that context, in 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted the WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030. In the Strategy, the role of official development assistance to support the health workforce is an area of interest. The objective of this study is to examine progress on implementing the Global Strategy by updating previous analyses that estimated and examined official development assistance targeted towards human resources for health. METHODS: We leveraged data from IHME's Development Assistance for Health database, COVID development assistance database and the OECD's Creditor Reporting System online database. We utilized an updated keyword list to identify the relevant human resources for health-related activities from the project databases. When possible, we also estimated the fraction of human resources for health projects that considered and/or focused on gender as a key factor. We described trends, examined changes in the availability of human resources for health-related development assistance since the adoption of the Global Strategy and compared disease burden and availability of donor resources. RESULTS: Since 2016, development assistance for human resources for health has increased with a slight dip in 2019. In 2020, fueled by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it reached an all-time high of $4.1 billion, more than double its value in 2016 and a 116.5% increase over 2019. The highest share (42.4%) of support for human resources for health-related activities has been directed towards training. Since the adoption of the Global Strategy, donor resources for health workforce-related activities have on average increased by 13.3% compared to 16.0% from 2000 through 2015. For 47 countries identified by the WHO as having severe workforce shortages, the availability of donor resources remains modest. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2016, donor support for health workforce-related activities has increased. However, there are lingering concerns related to the short-term nature of activities that donor funding supports and its viability for creating sustainable health systems.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Assessing the contribution of immigrants to Canada’s nursing and health care support occupations: a multi-scalar analysis

Abstract Background

The World Health Organization adopted the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health Workforce 2030 in May 2016. It sets specific milestones for improving health workforce planning in member countries, such as developing a health workforce registry by 2020 and ensuring workforce self-sufficiency by halving dependency on foreign-trained health professionals. Canada falls short in achieving these milestones due to the absence of such a registry and a poor understanding of immigrants in the health workforce, particularly nursing and healthcare support occupations. This paper provides a multiscale (Canada, Ontario, and Ontario’s Local Health Integration Networks) overview of immigrant participation in nursing and health care support occupations, discusses associated enumeration challenges, and the implications for health workforce planning focusing on immigrants.

Methods

Descriptive data analysis was performed on Canadian Institute for Health Information dataset for 2010 to 2020, and 2016 Canadian Census and other relevant data sources.

Results

The distribution of nurses in Canada, Ontario, and Ontario’s Local Health Integration Networks reveal a growth in Nurse Practitioners and Registered/Licensed Practical Nurses, and contraction in the share of Registered Nurses. Immigrant entry into the profession was primarily through the practical nurse cadre. Mid-sized communities registered the highest growth in the share of internationally educated nurses. Data also pointed towards the underutilization of immigrants in regulated nursing and health occupations.

Conclusion

Immigrants comprise an important share of Canada’s nursing and health care support workforce. Immigrant pathways for entering nursing occupations are complex and difficult to accurately enumerate. This paper recommends the creation of an integrated health workforce dataset, including information about immigrant health workers, for both effective national workforce planning and for assessing Canada’s role in global health workforce distribution and utilization.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Teamwork quality and health workers burnout nexus: a new insight from canonical correlation analysis

Abstract Background

Burnout is evidenced to have  adverse effect on the well-being of health workers. Although several risk factors of burnout have been found, only a hand full of studies have examined the role of teamwork quality. This study therefore sought to explore the relationship between the sub-dimensions of burnout and teamwork quality.

Method

This is an empirical study involving health workers who have practising certificate from the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Relying on the study’s target population, a sample of 939 healthworkers complied to partake in the survey. Data were obtained from the administration of a well-structured electronic questionnaire containing the Maslach Burnout Inventory together with Healthy and Resilient Organization (HERO) scales correspondingly. The scales were then analysed using the canonical correlation approach (CCA).

Results

The results unveiled a statistically significant correlation between teamwork quality and health worker burnout indicating that teamwork quality and burnout are canonically correlated. Further, examination on the relationship existing between the dimensions of teamwork quality and burnout unveiled that with the exception of personal accomplishment and teamwork dedication, teamwork quality sub-scales (teamwork vigour and teamwork absorption) were negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as sub-scales of burnout, respectively.

Conclusion

The study concluded that, surge in teamwork quality leads to reduced emotional exhaustion and reduced depersonalization while simultaneously increasing professional accomplishment. Therefore, this study presents a solid foundation for decreasing burnout syndrome in healthcare that can be implemented by successfully increasing levels of teamwork quality.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Getting Closer or Falling Apart? Euro Area Countries After the Sovereign Debt Crisis

Abstract

We study convergence and divergence dynamics in a sample of euro area countries by assembling an extensive dataset that contains information on public spending and policy outcomes in a variety of areas of government intervention including education, health, and civil justice from the early 1990s. We also focus on other important determinants of a country’s economic performance such as the level of regulation of product and labor markets, as well as the trust in political institutions, quality of governance, and inequality. Results show that despite divergent economic growth in the euro periphery countries after the 2010–2012 sovereign debt crisis, the quality of services and level of regulation did not deteriorate or indeed improved, increasing convergence with the core euro countries. However, the euro area sovereign debt crisis dramatically worsened citizens’ perceptions of quality of governance, as well as the level of social trust. This calls in question the future political viability of the EMU project and asks for reform.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Development assistance for human resources for health, 1990–2020

Abstract Background

Investing in the health workforce is key to achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. However, achieving these Goals requires addressing a projected global shortage of 18 million health workers (mostly in low- and middle-income countries). Within that context, in 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted the WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030. In the Strategy, the role of official development assistance to support the health workforce is an area of interest. The objective of this study is to examine progress on implementing the Global Strategy by updating previous analyses that estimated and examined official development assistance targeted towards human resources for health.

Methods

We leveraged data from IHME’s Development Assistance for Health database, COVID development assistance database and the OECD’s Creditor Reporting System online database. We utilized an updated keyword list to identify the relevant human resources for health-related activities from the project databases. When possible, we also estimated the fraction of human resources for health projects that considered and/or focused on gender as a key factor. We described trends, examined changes in the availability of human resources for health-related development assistance since the adoption of the Global Strategy and compared disease burden and availability of donor resources.

Results

Since 2016, development assistance for human resources for health has increased with a slight dip in 2019. In 2020, fueled by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it reached an all-time high of $4.1 billion, more than double its value in 2016 and a 116.5% increase over 2019. The highest share (42.4%) of support for human resources for health-related activities has been directed towards training. Since the adoption of the Global Strategy, donor resources for health workforce-related activities have on average increased by 13.3% compared to 16.0% from 2000 through 2015. For 47 countries identified by the WHO as having severe workforce shortages, the availability of donor resources remains modest.

Conclusions

Since 2016, donor support for health workforce-related activities has increased. However, there are lingering concerns related to the short-term nature of activities that donor funding supports and its viability for creating sustainable health systems.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Human resource management in Ethiopian public hospitals

Abstract Background

In Ethiopia, public hospitals deal with a persistent human resource crisis, even by Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) standards. Policy and hospital reforms, however, have thus far resulted in limited progress towards addressing the strategic human resource management (SHRM) challenges Ethiopia’s public hospitals face.

Methods

To explore the contextual factors influencing these SHRM challenges of Ethiopian public hospitals, we conducted a qualitative study based on the Contextual SHRM framework of Paauwe. A total of 19 structured interviews were conducted with Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and HR managers from a purposive sample of 15 hospitals across Ethiopia. An additional four focus groups were held with professionals and managers.

Results

The study found that hospitals compete on the supply side for scarce resources, including skilled professionals. There was little reporting on demand-side competition for health services provided, service quality, and service innovation. Governmental regulations were the main institutional mechanism in place. These regulations also emphasized human resources and were perceived to tightly regulate employee numbers, salaries, and employment arrangements at detailed levels. These regulations were perceived to restrict the autonomy of hospitals regarding SHRM. Regulation-induced differences in allowances and external employment arrangements were among the concerns that decreased motivation and job satisfaction and caused employees to leave. The mismatch between regulation and workforce demands posed challenges for leadership and caused leaders to be perceived as incompetent and unable when they could not successfully address workforce needs.

Conclusions

Bottom-up involvement in SHRM may help resolve the aforementioned persistent problems. The Ethiopian government might better loosen regulations and provide more autonomy to hospitals to develop SHRM and implement mechanisms that emphasize the quality of the health services demanded rather than the quantity of human resources supplied.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Implementing a health labour market analysis to address health workforce gaps in a rural region of India.

BACKGROUND: Human Resources for Health (HRH) are essential for making meaningful progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), but health systems in most of the developing countries continue to suffer from serious gaps in health workforce. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health-Workforce 2030, adopted in 2016, includes Health Labor Market Analysis (HLMA) as a tool for evidence based health workforce improvements. HLMA offers certain advantages over the traditional approach of workforce planning. In 2018, WHO supported a HLMA exercise in Chhattisgarh, one of the predominantly rural states of India. METHODS: The HLMA included a stakeholder consultation for identifying policy questions relevant to the context. The HLMA focused on state HRH at district-level and below. Mixed methods were used for data collection and analysis. Detailed district-wise data on HRH availability were collected from state's health department. Data were also collected on policies implemented on HRH during the 3 year period after the start of HLMA and changes in health workforce. RESULTS: The state had increased the production of doctors but vacancies persisted until 2018. The availability of doctors and other qualified health workers was uneven with severe shortages of private as well as public HRH in rural areas. In case of nurses, there was a substantial production of nurses, particularly from private schools, however there was a lack of trusted accreditation mechanism and vacancies in public sector persisted alongside unemployment among nurses. Based on the HLMA, pragmatic recommendations were decided and followed up. Over the past 3 years since the HLMA began an additional 4547 health workers including 1141 doctors have been absorbed by the public sector. The vacancies in most of the clinical cadres were brought below 20%. CONCLUSION: The HLMA played an important role in identifying the key HRH gaps and clarifying the underlying issues. The HLMA and the pursuant recommendations were instrumental in development and implementation of appropriate policies to improve rural HRH in Chhattisgarh. This demonstrates important progress on key 2030 Global Strategy milestones of reducing inequalities in access to health workers and improving financing, retention and training of HRH.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Factors influencing attraction and retention of frontline health workers in remote and rural areas in Nigeria: a discrete choice experiment

Abstract

The policy thrust in Nigeria is to ensure qualified, skilled, and adequate health workforce to achieve universal health coverage. We designed a discrete choice experiment to determine the combinations of incentives that may increase the attraction and retention of frontline health workers. We conducted the study in Bauchi State amongst 145 students and health workers. Health workers are 14.6 and 14.4 times more likely to take up a rural posting or continue to stay in their present rural posts if there was basic housing and improvement of the quality of the facilities respectively. The preference for rural job location increased 6.17 times when good schools for children's education were provided. Ensuring availability of basic housing, improving the quality of health facilities, and ensuring good schools for children’s educations are essential factors that may support attraction and retention of health workers. These strategies will support health care services in rural areas and achieving universal health coverage.

Categorías: Investigaciones

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