Formal interprofessional education provides health sciences students the opportunity to develop their knowledge in teamwork, communication, collaboration, and ethics. The purpose of this paper is to describe interprofessional students' perceptions of professionalism, ethics, and teamwork before and after being immersed in an interprofessional education Module on these topics. Through a program review process, pre- and post-Module survey responses from 10 interprofessional students were randomly reviewed by five faculty from different health sciences disciplines. Results from the thematic analysis of those open-ended surveys revealed students evolved in their perceptions of all three areas of professionalism, ethics, and teamwork following participation in the interprofessional Module. For professionalism, students' insights reflected a broader understanding of their roles as a professional not just individually, but on an interpersonal and societal level. Students' descriptions of ethical behavior also expanded beyond the importance of ethics within one's scope of practice to integrate cultural differences to ethically promote patient well-being. Lastly, post-survey responses indicated students' deeper understanding of the importance of teamwork to reduce errors and increase patient outcomes by working towards a common goal. The themes that emerged from this program review provided support for continued interprofessional activities to address professionalism, ethics, and teamwork.
OBJECTIVES: Interprofessional education (IPE) harnesses the power of teams to facilitate collaborative learning across disciplines. However, prior research has not paid sufficient attention to the role of team-level factors on IPE outcomes, posing a major theoretical and methodological limitation. In response to this, using social interdependence theory (SIT), this study aimed to delineate the independent contributions of both team-level and student-level interprofessional attitudes (teamwork, roles, and responsibilities; patient-centeredness; and community-centeredness) in predicting IPE collaboration outcomes (goal achievement, team effectiveness, and team performance) employing multi-level analysis. METHODS: To test whether interprofessional attitudes at the team and student levels predict IPE collaboration outcomes, conducted multilevel modeling. We used the pretest and posttest data from 323 healthcare students in Hong Kong from Chinese medicine, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work programmes enrolled in the IPE Cancer module. RESULTS: Among the interprofessional attitudes, "teamwork, roles, and responsibilities" was found to be the best predictor of IPE outcomes, both at the student and team levels. Students who recognized the benefits of shared learning had better goal achievement and team effectiveness. Furthermore, teams that emphasized shared learning also had better overall team performance. CONCLUSIONS: Students' attitudes towards teamwork, roles, and responsibilities in interprofessional collaborative practice, both at the student and team levels, are important to attaining positive student- and team-level outcomes. The study contributes to the expansion of existing knowledge in medical education, theoretically, by adopting SIT as a lens through which collaborative learning in healthcare teams can be understood, and methodologically, by applying multi-level approaches and delineating important student- and team-level predictors of IPE outcomes.
[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Sistematizar y analizar las acciones de respuesta relacionadas con los recursos humanos en salud durante la pandemia reportadas por 20 países de la Región de las Américas en la evaluación de medio término del Plan de acción sobre recursos humanos para el acceso universal a la salud y la cobertura universal de salud 2018-2023 (Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2018), y valorar la trascendencia de las políticas y la gestión de los recursos humanos expresadas en la Estrategia y el Plan de recursos humanos durante emergencias sanitarias y en tiempos normales. Métodos. Se seleccionaron y sistematizaron reportes sobre las acciones contra la COVID-19 y los recursos humanos en salud de 20 países de la Región. Se clasificaron las acciones en acciones inmediatas de contingencia, acciones relacionadas con capacidades instaladas y acciones emergentes. Resultados. Las capacidades de planificar y gestionar los recursos humanos en salud en los países dependen de las estructuras y competencias instaladas y funcionales. La pandemia visibilizó la necesidad de disponer de nuevos perfiles laborales, mejorar las condiciones laborales y contractuales precarias, visibilizar la perspectiva de género y solucionar brechas numéricas en determinadas áreas y niveles de atención. Conclusiones. La vinculación de acciones contra la COVID-19 con el monitoreo del Plan demostró la importancia de la gobernanza, la gestión y las capacidades instaladas en recursos humanos de salud para dar respuestas en emergencias sanitarias y en tiempos normales. El análisis invita a la revisión de las políticas públicas existentes, los modelos de atención necesarios para orientar las necesidades actuales y futuras de recursos humanos de salud, los perfiles requeridos, las condiciones laborales y la cobertura de brechas numéricas existentes, entre otros temas. La pandemia permitió innovaciones en los países para responder a la demanda. La Estrategia y el Plan siguen vigentes para orientar y fortalecer el desempeño de los recursos humanos en salud. [ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Systematize and analyze the response actions related to human resources for health during the pandemic, reported by 20 countries of the Region of the Americas in the mid-term evaluation of the Plan of Action on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage 2018–2023 (Pan American Health Organization, 2018), and assess the importance of the policies on human resources for health (HRH) and on HRH management expressed in the Plan of Action and in the Strategy on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage during health emergencies and in normal times. Methods. Reports on actions taken in 20 countries of the Region against COVID-19 and for HRH were selected and systematized. These were classified as immediate contingency actions, actions related to installed capacities, and emerging actions. Results. The capacity to plan and manage HRH in countries depends on their installed, functional structures and competencies. The pandemic highlighted the need to have new job profiles, improve precarious working and contractual conditions, emphasize the gender perspective, and address numerical gaps in certain areas and levels of care. Conclusions. Linking the monitoring of the Plan of Action with the COVID-19 response demonstrated the importance of HRH governance, management, and installed capacities when responding to health emergencies and in normal times. The analysis suggests a need to review existing public policies, models of care that can guide current and future needs in HRH, the profiles required, working conditions, and ways to close numerical gaps, among other issues. The pandemic enabled countries to innovate in response to demands. The Strategy and the Plan of Action remain in place to guide and strengthen the performance of human resources for health. [RESUMO]. Objetivos. Sistematizar e analisar as ações de resposta relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde durante a pandemia, relatadas por 20 países da Região das Américas na avaliação intermediária do Plano de ação sobre recursos humanos para o acesso universal à saúde e a cobertura universal de saúde 2018-2023 (Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, 2018), e avaliar a importância das políticas e da gestão de recursos humanos expressas na estratégia e no plano durante emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. Métodos. Foram selecionados e sistematizados relatórios sobre ações contra a COVID-19 e recursos humanos para a saúde de 20 países da Região. As ações foram classificadas em ações imediatas de contingência, ações relacionadas às capacidades instaladas e ações emergentes. Resultados. As capacidades de planejamento e gestão de recursos humanos para a saúde nos países dependem das estruturas e das competências instaladas e funcionais. A pandemia tornou visível a necessidade de ter novos perfis de trabalho, melhorar as precárias condições de trabalho e contratuais, tornar visível a perspectiva de gênero e solucionar lacunas numéricas em determinadas áreas e níveis de atenção. Conclusões. A vinculação das ações contra a COVID-19 com o monitoramento do plano demonstrou a importância da governança, da gestão e das capacidades instaladas relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde, para responder a emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. A análise convida à revisão das políticas públicas existentes, dos modelos de atenção necessários para orientar as necessidades atuais e futuras dos recursos humanos para a saúde, os perfis exigidos, as condições de trabalho e a cobertura das lacunas numéricas existentes, entre outras questões. A pandemia permitiu inovações nos países para responder à demanda. A estratégia e o plano continuam vigentes para orientar e fortalecer o desempenho dos recursos humanos para a saúde.
[RESUMEN]. Se presenta el posicionamiento del grupo de trabajo latinoamericano de la Fundación Internacional para los Cuidados Integrados (1) (IFIC, por su sigla en inglés). Este reúne a diversos actores y organizaciones de América Latina, con el objeto de apoyar acciones que faciliten la transformación de los sistemas de salud en la Región hacia sistemas integrados y centrados en las personas, no como individuos aislados, sino como sujetos de derecho, en los contextos sociales y ambientales complejos donde viven y se vinculan. El grupo de trabajo plantea nueve pilares de la atención integrada para ser utilizados como marco conceptual en la elaboración de políticas y de cambios en las prácticas: 1) visión y valores compartidos, 2) salud de las poblaciones, 3) las personas y las comunidades como socias, 4) comunidades resilientes, 5) capacidades del talento humano en salud, 6) gobernanza y liderazgo, 7) soluciones digitales, 8) sistemas de pago alineados, y 9) transparencia ante la ciudadanía. Desde estos pilares se proponen líneas de trabajo en los ámbitos del fortalecimiento de alianzas y redes, la abogacía, la investigación y generación de capacidades, que contribuyan a materializar sistemas de salud y sociales efectivamente integrados y centrados no solo en las personas, sino también en las comunidades en América Latina. [ABSTRACT]. This paper presents the position of the Latin American working group of the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC). The working group brings together various Latin American actors and organizations in support of actions that facilitate the transformation of health systems in the region towards integrated systems that focus on people not as isolated individuals but as subjects of law in the complex social and environmental contexts where they live and interact. The working group proposes nine pillars of integrated care to be used as a conceptual framework for policy development and changes in practices: 1) shared vision and values; 2) population health; 3) people and communities as partners; 4) resilient communities; 5) capacities of human resources for health; 6) governance and leadership; 7) digital solutions; 8) aligned payment systems; and 9) public transparency. Based on these pillars, lines of work are proposed to strengthen alliances and networks, advocacy, research, and capacity-building, in order to help develop health and social systems that are effectively integrated and focused not only on people but also on communities in Latin America. [RESUMO]. Este artigo apresenta o posicionamento do grupo de trabalho latino-americano da Fundação Internacional de Cuidados Integrados (1) (IFIC, na sigla em inglês). A IFIC reúne diversos atores e organizações da América Latina com o fim de apoiar ações que facilitem a transformação dos sistemas de saúde na região para sistemas integrados e centrados nas pessoas, não como indivíduos isolados, mas como sujeitos de direito, nos complexos contextos sociais e ambientais em que vivem e participam. O grupo de trabalho propõe nove pilares de atenção integrada a serem utilizados como marco conceitual na elaboração de políticas e de mudanças nas práticas: 1) visão e valores compartilhados, 2) saúde das populações, 3) pessoas e comunidades como parceiros, 4) comunidades resilientes, 5) capacitação de talento humano em saúde, 6) governança e liderança, 7) soluções digitais, 8) sistemas de pagamento alinhados e 9) transparência perante a população. Com base nesses pilares, são propostas linhas de trabalho nas áreas de fortalecimento de alianças e redes, incidência política, pesquisa e capacitação, que contribuam para materializar na América Latina sistemas sociais e de saúde efetivamente integrados e centrados não só nas pessoas, como também nas comunidades.
AIM: To investigate the existence of guidelines on the identification of nursing stakeholders as part of planning for human resources for health processes. BACKGROUND: Effective involvement of nursing stakeholders in planning and implementing human resources for health policies is strongly advocated by leading global bodies. Systematic identification of nursing stakeholders at an early stage is fundamentally important. Guidelines to support appropriate identification and inclusion of nursing stakeholders could support the active involvement of nurses and midwives in human resources for health planning processes at all levels. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. We conducted a widely inclusive search for all types of records, including searches of bibliographic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science) and manual searches of selected websites and internet archives to identify grey literature, published in English since 2009. Search terms related to guidelines, stakeholder engagement and the health workforce. RESULTS: Of the 1058 potentially relevant sources identified, two studies met inclusion criteria. Both were guidelines produced by global bodies more than 12 years ago. Cochrane guidance on reporting 'near-empty' reviews was followed, and eight additional sources meeting most of the inclusion criteria were identified and critiqued. CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines regarding the process of nursing stakeholder identification specific to human resources for health planning processes are scarce and require updating. Critique of recent practices suggests considerable methodological variety and sub-optimal identification of nursing stakeholders. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: Nursing stakeholder engagement is an essential component of human resources for health planning processes, and the gap in literature points to a need for up-to-date guidance to ensure nurses' active involvement.
Al igual que en ediciones anteriores, la presente publicación recoge y sistematiza la información en materia del recurso humano de las instituciones del Sector Salud y en mayor detalle del Ministerio de Salud y los Gobiernos Regionales, a través del Registro Nacional de Personal de Salud INFORHUS, incluyéndose información relevante del Servicio Nacional Urbano Marginal de Salud SERUMS y del Sistema Nacional de Residentado Médico SINAREME. En esta oportunidad, se ha sistematizado la información correspondiente a la Política Integral de Compensaciones y Entregas Económicas del Personal de Salud al Servicio del Estado Decreto Legislativo N° 1153 para lo cual, se ha utilizado como fuente de información la base de datos del Aplicativo Informático del Registro Centralizado de Planillas del Recursos Humano al Servicio del Sector Publico - AIRHSP , del Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas
The Nigerian health care system is weak due to lack of coordination, fragmentation of services by donor funding of vertical services, dearth and poor distribution of resources, and inadequate infrastructures. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has supported the country’s health system and provided strategies and skills which need to be documented for use by other health programs attempting disease control or eradication. This study, therefore, explored the contributions of the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) activities to the operations of other health programs within the Nigerian health system from the perspectives of frontline workers and managers.
This cross-sectional qualitative study used key informant interviews (KIIs) and inductive thematic analysis. Twenty-nine KIIs were conducted with individuals who have been involved continuously in PEI activities for at least 12 months since the program's inception. This research was part of a more extensive study, the Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE), conducted in 2018. The KII tool focused on four major themes: work experience in other health programs, similarities and differences between polio programs and other health programs, contributions of polio programs, and missed opportunities for implementing polio lessons. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic framework.
The implementation of the PEI has increased health promotion activities and coverage of maternal and child health interventions through the development of tangible and intangible resources, building the capacities of health workers and discovering innovations. The presence of a robust PEI program within a weakened health system of similar programs lacking such extensive support led to a shift in health workers' primary roles. This was perceived to reduce human resources efforts in rural areas with a limited workforce, and to affect other programs' service delivery.
The PEI has made a notable impact on the Nigerian health system. There should be hastened efforts to transition these resources from the PEI into other programs where there are missed opportunities and future control programs. The primary health care managers should continue integration efforts to ensure that programs leverage opportunities within successful programs to improve the health of the community members.
Human Resources for Health (HRH) are essential for making meaningful progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), but health systems in most of the developing countries continue to suffer from serious gaps in health workforce. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health—Workforce 2030, adopted in 2016, includes Health Labor Market Analysis (HLMA) as a tool for evidence based health workforce improvements. HLMA offers certain advantages over the traditional approach of workforce planning. In 2018, WHO supported a HLMA exercise in Chhattisgarh, one of the predominantly rural states of India.
The HLMA included a stakeholder consultation for identifying policy questions relevant to the context. The HLMA focused on state HRH at district-level and below. Mixed methods were used for data collection and analysis. Detailed district-wise data on HRH availability were collected from state’s health department. Data were also collected on policies implemented on HRH during the 3 year period after the start of HLMA and changes in health workforce.
The state had increased the production of doctors but vacancies persisted until 2018. The availability of doctors and other qualified health workers was uneven with severe shortages of private as well as public HRH in rural areas. In case of nurses, there was a substantial production of nurses, particularly from private schools, however there was a lack of trusted accreditation mechanism and vacancies in public sector persisted alongside unemployment among nurses. Based on the HLMA, pragmatic recommendations were decided and followed up. Over the past 3 years since the HLMA began an additional 4547 health workers including 1141 doctors have been absorbed by the public sector. The vacancies in most of the clinical cadres were brought below 20%.
The HLMA played an important role in identifying the key HRH gaps and clarifying the underlying issues. The HLMA and the pursuant recommendations were instrumental in development and implementation of appropriate policies to improve rural HRH in Chhattisgarh. This demonstrates important progress on key 2030 Global Strategy milestones of reducing inequalities in access to health workers and improving financing, retention and training of HRH.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) on student self-perceived competencies and perceptions of interprofessional (IP) communication and teamwork in a clinical case review activity. TeamSTEPPS is an evidence-based curriculum that is used to enhance and support IP healthcare communication. METHODS: A repeated-measures, pretest/posttest study evaluated physician assistant students' and student pharmacists' perceptions of TeamSTEPPS. Students completed Performance Assessment for Communication and Teamwork (PACT) surveys, evaluating teamwork, knowledge, attitudes, and skills perceptions before and after a TeamSTEPPS lecture and associated activity with peer feedback. RESULTS: Overall, 87.4% (n = 429) completed pre- and post-PACT surveys. Apart from the Mutual Support domain (p = .898), all changes were significantly positive (p < .004), with the greatest improvements occurring in the Attitudes and Perceived Skills domains. CONCLUSION: TeamSTEPPS IP education, application, and peer feedback improved students' perceptions of multiple domains, including effective communication. Using TeamSTEPPS tools in IP formats enabled the students to safely practice and collaborate in preparation for clinical practice.
Interprofessional (IP) education is focused on learning about, from, and with other health care professionals in an effort to improve patient care and specifically patient safety. IP education does not diminish the importance of discipline-specific competencies but rather focuses on making the connections necessary to develop IP collaborative practice to improve the quality of health care. Research studies addressing IP education in both health profession students and health care professionals published during 2021 are reviewed. The studies explored improving attitudes toward IP education, improving communication and collaboration skills, and improving patient safety. Review of the recently published IP education literature reveals opportunities for respiratory therapy educators, researchers, managers, and clinicians to discover ways to develop IP collaborative practice to ultimately have an important impact on the outcome of the patients we serve.
Several countries in Africa have developed human resources for health (HRH) policies and strategies to synergise efforts in setting priorities, directions and means to address the major challenges around leadership and governance, production, recruitment, management, motivation and retention and coordination. In this paper, we present information on the availability, quality and implementation of national HRH policies and strategic plans in the WHO Africa Region. Information was obtained using a questionnaire completed by the head of HRH departments in the Ministries of Health of 47 countries in the WHO Africa Region. Of the 47 countries in the Region, 57% (27 countries) had HRH policies and 11% (5 countries) were in the process of developing one. Thirty-two countries (68%) had national strategic plans for HRH with 12 (26%) being in the process of developing a strategic plan, and 28 countries reporting the implementation of their strategic plans. On the quality of the policies and strategic plans, 28 countries (88%) linked their plans to the national development plan, 30 countries (94%) informed their policy and plan using the national health policy and strategic plans. Evidence-based HRH policies and plans guide the actions of actors in strengthening health systems. Countries need to invest in developing quality HRH policies and plans through an intersectoral approach and based on contextual evidence. This is vital in ensuring that equitably distributed, well-regulated and motivated HRH are available to deliver people-centred health services to the population.
BACKGROUND: There have been past efforts to develop benchmarks for health workforce (HWF) needs across countries which have been helpful for advocacy and planning. Still, they have neither been country-specific nor disaggregated by cadre-primarily due to data inadequacies. This paper presents an analysis to estimate a threshold of 13 cadres of HWF density to support the progressive realisation of universal health coverage (UHC). METHOD: Using UHC service coverage as the outcome measure, a two-level structural equation model was specified and analysed in STATA V.16. In the first level of structural equations, health expenditure per capita-one of the cross-cutting inputs for UHC, was used to explain the critical inputs for service delivery/coverage. In the second level of the model, the critical inputs for service delivery were used to explain the UHC Service Coverage Index (UHC SCI), in which the contribution of the HWF was 'partial out'. RESULTS: The analysis found that a unit increase in the HWF density per 10 000 population is positively associated with statistically significant improvements in the UHC SCI of countries (ß=0.127, p<0.001). Similarly, a positive and statistically significant association was established between diagnostic readiness and the UHC SCI (ß=0.243, p=0.015). Essential medicines readiness was positively correlated but not statistically significant (ß=0.053, p=0.658). Controlling for other variables, a density of 134.23 per 10 000 population across 13 HWF categories is necessary to attain at least 70% UHC SCI. CONCLUSION: Consistent with current knowledge, the HWF is a significant predictor of the UHC SCI. Attaining at least 70% of the UHC SCI requires about 134.23 health workers (a mix of 13 cadres) per 10 000 population.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about strategies for optimising the scale and deployment of community health workers (CHWs) to maximise geographic accessibility of primary healthcare services. METHODS: We used data from a national georeferenced census of CHWs and other spatial datasets in Sierra Leone to undertake a geospatial analysis exploring optimisation of the scale and deployment of CHWs, with the aim of informing implementation of current CHW policy and future plans of the Ministry of Health and Sanitation. RESULTS: The per cent of the population within 30 min walking to the nearest CHW with preservice training increased from 16.1% to 80.4% between 2000 and 2015. Contrary to current national policy, most of this increase occurred in areas within 3 km of a health facility where nearly two-thirds (64.5%) of CHWs were deployed. Ministry of Health and Sanitation-defined 'easy-to-reach' and 'hard-to-reach' areas, geographic areas that should be targeted for CHW deployment, were less well covered, with 19.2% and 34.6% of the population in 2015 beyond a 30 min walk to a CHW, respectively. Optimised CHW networks in these areas were more efficiently deployed than existing networks by 22.4%-71.9%, depending on targeting metric. INTERPRETATIONS: Our analysis supports the Ministry of Health and Sanitation plan to rightsize and retarget the CHW workforce. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa interested in optimising the scale and deployment of their CHW workforce in the context of broader human resources for health and health sector planning may look to Sierra Leone as an exemplar model from which to learn.
BACKGROUND: A cohesive and strategic governance approach is needed to improve the health workforce (HW). To achieve this, the WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health (HRH) promotes mechanisms to coordinate HRH stakeholders, HRH structures and capacity within the health sector to support the development and implementation of a comprehensive HW agenda and regular reporting through WHO's National Health Workforce Accounts (NHWA). METHODS: Using an adapted HRH governance framework for guidance and analysis, we explored the existence and operation of HRH coordination mechanisms and HRH structures in Malawi, Nepal, Sudan and additionally from a global perspective through 28 key informant interviews and a review of 165 documents. RESULTS: A unified approach is needed for the coordination of stakeholders who support the timely development and oversight of an appropriate costed HRH strategy subsequently implemented and monitored by an HRH unit. Multiple HRH stakeholder coordination mechanisms co-exist, but the broader, embedded mechanisms seemed more likely to support and sustain a comprehensive intersectoral HW agenda. Including all stakeholders is challenging and the private sector and civil society were noted for their absence. The credibility of coordination mechanisms increases participation. Factors contributing to credibility included: high-level leadership, organisational support and the generation and availability of timely HRH data and clear ownership by the ministry of health. HRH units were identified in two study countries and were reported to exist in many countries, but were not necessarily functional. There is a lack of specialist knowledge needed for the planning and management of the HW amongst staff in HRH units or equivalent structures, coupled with high turnover in many countries. Donor support has helped with provision of technical expertise and HRH data systems, though the benefits may not be sustained. CONCLUSION: While is it important to monitor the existence of HRH coordination mechanisms and HRH structure through the NHWA, improved 'health workforce literacy' for both stakeholders and operational HRH staff and a deeper understanding of the operation of these functions is needed to strengthen their contribution to HW governance and ultimately, wider health goals.
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) include a range of occupations that aim to promote or improve human health. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the WHO Health Workforce 2030 strategy have drawn attention to the importance of HRH for achieving policy priorities such as universal health coverage (UHC). Although previous research has found substantial global disparities in HRH, the absence of comparable cross-national estimates of existing workforces has hindered efforts to quantify workforce requirements to meet health system goals. We aimed to use comparable and standardised data sources to estimate HRH densities globally, and to examine the relationship between a subset of HRH cadres and UHC effective coverage performance. METHODS: Through the International Labour Organization and Global Health Data Exchange databases, we identified 1404 country-years of data from labour force surveys and 69 country-years of census data, with detailed microdata on health-related employment. From the WHO National Health Workforce Accounts, we identified 2950 country-years of data. We mapped data from all occupational coding systems to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 (ISCO-88), allowing for standardised estimation of densities for 16 categories of health workers across the full time series. Using data from 1990 to 2019 for 196 of 204 countries and territories, covering seven Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) super-regions and 21 regions, we applied spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) to model HRH densities from 1990 to 2019 for all countries and territories. We used stochastic frontier meta-regression to model the relationship between the UHC effective coverage index and densities for the four categories of health workers enumerated in SDG indicator 3.c.1 pertaining to HRH: physicians, nurses and midwives, dentistry personnel, and pharmaceutical personnel. We identified minimum workforce density thresholds required to meet a specified target of 80 out of 100 on the UHC effective coverage index, and quantified national shortages with respect to those minimum thresholds. FINDINGS: We estimated that, in 2019, the world had 104·0 million (95% uncertainty interval 83·5-128·0) health workers, including 12·8 million (9·7-16·6) physicians, 29·8 million (23·3-37·7) nurses and midwives, 4·6 million (3·6-6·0) dentistry personnel, and 5·2 million (4·0-6·7) pharmaceutical personnel. We calculated a global physician density of 16·7 (12·6-21·6) per 10 000 population, and a nurse and midwife density of 38·6 (30·1-48·8) per 10 000 population. We found the GBD super-regions of sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and north Africa and the Middle East had the lowest HRH densities. To reach 80 out of 100 on the UHC effective coverage index, we estimated that, per 10 000 population, at least 20·7 physicians, 70·6 nurses and midwives, 8·2 dentistry personnel, and 9·4 pharmaceutical personnel would be needed. In total, the 2019 national health workforces fell short of these minimum thresholds by 6·4 million physicians, 30·6 million nurses and midwives, 3·3 million dentistry personnel, and 2·9 million pharmaceutical personnel. INTERPRETATION: Considerable expansion of the world's health workforce is needed to achieve high levels of UHC effective coverage. The largest shortages are in low-income settings, highlighting the need for increased financing and coordination to train, employ, and retain human resources in the health sector. Actual HRH shortages might be larger than estimated because minimum thresholds for each cadre of health workers are benchmarked on health systems that most efficiently translate human resources into UHC attainment. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
BACKGROUND: Many countries are faced with a multitude of health workforce-related challenges partly attributed to defective health workforce planning. Earlier efforts to guide the process and harmonise approaches to national health workforce policies and planning in the Africa Region included, among others, the development of the WHO Africa Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) Policies and Plans for Human Resources for Health Guidelines for Countries in the WHO African Region in 2006. Although this guideline has led to uniformity and rigour in developing human resources for health (HRH) policies and strategies in Africa, it has become imperative to synthesise the emerging evidence and best practices in the development of health workforce strategies. METHODS: A document analysis was conducted using the READ ( R eadying materials; E xtracting data; A nalysing data and D istilling) approach. RESULTS: Fourteen HRH policy/strategic plans were included in the study. The scope of the HRH strategic plans was described in three dimensions: the term of the strategy, sectors covered by the strategy and the health workforce considered in the projections. We found that HRH strategic plan development can be conceptualised as a cyclical, sequential multimethod project, with one phase feeding the subsequent phase with data or instructions. The process is very complex, with different interest groups and sectors that need to be satisfied. The HRH strategic plan development process comprises five main phases linked with external forces and national politics. CONCLUSION: There is a need for accurate and comprehensive HRH data collection, astute HRH leadership, and broad base and multisectoral stakeholder consultation with technical support and guidance from experts and major external partners for effective HRH strategic plan development.
Primary healthcare with the right structure is the base for any highly efficient healthcare system to achieve better health outcomes at the lowest cost. Challenges of this system, including structural weaknesses, are one of the factors of inefficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify challenges of the organizational structure of county health network in Iran.
An exploratory qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interviews were carried out with 21 key informants including experts and managers in Ahvaz-Iran. Purposive sampling method with maximum diversity were used. Interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were analyzed based on a thematic analysis approach via NVivo-11.
In analysis of the interviews, after removing the duplicate codes and merging similar items, finally 6 main challenges and 56 sub-themes were obtained. The themes of structural challenges included formalization, complexity, centralization, culture, environment, and resources.
Based on the present situation, the challenges in the current organizational structure and a change in the goals and strategies of the healthcare system in Iran, the appropriate structure needs to be designed and implemented at different levels in accordance with the goals and strategies. The separation and independence of health centers management and hospitals (treatment) in the county can provide a basis for understanding the challenges to the provision of health services.
Introdução:A educação interprofissional vem se destacando Brasil devido ao reconhecimento da capacidade da abordagem em melhorar a qualidade dos serviços de saúde, comunicação e interação entre estudantes.Objetivo:Relatar uma experiência de acadêmicos doscursosde medicina e nutrição em uma atividadeeducativa interprofissionalem saúdepara promoção de uma alimentação adequada e saudável, para crianças em idade pré-escolar, realizada no segundo semestre do ano de 2019, em uma escola municipal,Anápolis,Goiás.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, tipo relato de experiência, elaborado por estudantes da área da saúde após projeto realizado com crianças empré-escolaridade escolar. Resultados:A atividade educativa foi idealizada após análise referente às doenças crônicas do território da Unidade Básica de Saúde assistida em conjunto com a disciplina Medicina de Família e Comunidade e verificou-se a necessidade de trabalhar a conscientização acerca da alimentação com as crianças pré-escolarpor ser uma idade de descoberta e formação dos hábitos alimentares. Por meio da parceria entre os dois cursos, foram elaboradas atividades lúdicas e a diferenciação dos alimentos para fomentar a criação de hábitos alimentares saudáveis e assim evitar e/ou minimizar possíveis patologias no futuro. Conclusões:Conclui-se que a educação em saúde aliada a interprofissionalidadeé de suma importância para o aprendizado, tendo sido proporcionado um momento de troca de conhecimentos, tanto entre os acadêmicosde diferentes cursos e professores, quanto entre acadêmicos e crianças (AU). Introduction:Interprofessional education has been standing out in Brazil due to the recognition of the approach's ability to improve the quality of health services, communication and interaction among students. Objective:To report an experience of medical and nutrition students in an interprofessional health education activity to promote adequate and healthy eating for preschool-age children, held in the second half of 2019, in a municipal school, Anápolis, Goiás.Methodology:This is a descriptive study, type of experience report, prepared by students in the health area after a project carried out with school-aged children of 4years. Results:The action was idealized after analysis regarding chronic diseases in the basic health Unitterritory'sassisted in conjunction with the Family and Community Medicine discipline. Therefore, there was a need to raise awareness about eating with 4-year-old children from a municipal school, as it is an age of discovery and formation of eating habits. Through the partnership between the medical course and the nutrition course, recreational activities were developed, in addition to the recognition of foods and the differentiation of fresh and processed foods, to promote the creation of healthy eating habits and thus avoid and/or minimize possible pathologies in the future. Conclusions:Under this point of view, it is concluded that Health Education combined with interdisciplinarity is extremely important for learning, having provided a moment of exchange of knowledge, both among students from different courses and teachers, as well as between academics and children (AU). Introducción: La educación interprofesionalse ha destacado en Brasil por el reconocimiento de la capacidad del enfoque para mejorar la calidad de los servicios de salud, la comunicación y la interacción entre los estudiantes.Objetivo: Informar una experiencia de estudiantes de medicina y nutrición en una actividad interprofesional de educación en salud para promover una alimentación adecuada y saludable para niños en edad preescolar, realizada en el segundo semestre de 2019, en una escuela municipal, Anápolis, Goiás.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, tipo de relato de experiencia, elaborado por estudiantes del ámbito de la salud a partir de un proyecto realizado con niños en edad escolar de 4 años.Resultados:La acción fue concebida luego de un análisis sobre enfermedades crónicas en el territoriode La Unidad básica de salud asistidaen conjunto con la disciplina de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria y existía la necesidad de sensibilizar sobre la alimentación a los niños de 4 años ya que es una época de descubrimiento y formación de hábitos alimenticios. A través de la alianza entre los dos cursos, se desarrollaron actividades lúdicas y diferenciación alimentaria para fomentar la creación de hábitos alimentarios saludables y así evitar y / o minimizar posibles patologías en el futuro.Conclusiones: Se concluye que la Educación para la Salud combinada con la interdisciplinariedad es de suma importancia para el aprendizaje, habiendo brindado un momento de intercambio de conocimientos, tanto entre estudiantes de diferentes cursos y docentes, como entre académicos y niños (AU).