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Student-led clinics provide a unique opportunity for interprofessional education as part of the education of future allied health professionals. A rapid review was conducted to determine the benefits to allied health students participating in interprofessional education in student-led clinics. Studies were included if they took place within a student-led clinic, reported on outcomes for students and where the clinic involved interprofessional education for students from either two or more allied health professions, or one allied health and one nursing student. Results were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. Five themes were identified: (a) understanding of own role and scope of practice; (b) understanding of the role and scope of practice of other professions; (c) individual benefits to the students; (d) impact on patient-centered care; and (c) understanding of how to work in an interprofessional team. These benefits indicate that student-led clinics are a suitable setting for the delivery of interprofessional education to allied health students. More research is needed that considers the long-term impact on these student outcomes following students' entry into the healthcare profession, as well as on the impact of specific components of the interprofessional education models on student outcomes.
Interprofessional health-care ethics education for medical and nursing students in Germany: an interprofessional education and practice guide.
Early interprofessional learning among nursing and medical students provides various benefits for future collaboration among professionals, and high-quality care for patients. Expert committees, thus, urge the integration of interprofessional education (IPE) in undergraduate studies to achieve significant sustainable improvements in health-care practice. In Germany, IPE interventions are already implemented in some health-care disciplines, but Health-care Ethics are scarcely regarded in undergraduate education. There are, however, several reasons why Health-care Ethics is particularly appropriate for teaching in an interprofessional format. Thus, after reviewing the legal framework and the current curricula of both professions, an IPE course on Health-care Ethics for medical and nursing students was developed and implemented, consisting of seven classes of 180 minutes each. Drawing on the evaluation results after two rounds of the course, this interprofessional education and practice guide reports on challenges, obstacles and perspectives for improvement of an IPE course on Health-care Ethics. It aims to provide guidance for teaching pioneers and innovators who implement similar projects and to foster practice-oriented and open discussion about the possibilities and limits of IPE in Health-care Ethics.
Does collective efficacy drive readiness for interprofessional learning? Evidence from a large-scale interprofessional education program in Hong Kong.
Interprofessional education has been widely integrated into health education curricula to enable students to work comfortably as members of a healthcare team. However, not much is known about the psychosocial mechanism that defines students' readiness for interprofessional learning. Drawing from social cognitive theory, we examined the pathway where collective efficacy was construed to influence subsequent students' satisfaction with team experiences, readiness for interprofessional learning, and attainment of interprofessional learning outcomes. Through path analysis, we examined data from 1,005 health and social care students who participated in a large-scale interprofessional education in Hong Kong. Results indicated that collective efficacy directly and indirectly predicted students' readiness for interprofessional learning and perception of attainment of IPE learning outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of findings in the management of interprofessional education are discussed.
The short version of students' perceptions of interprofessional clinical education-revised (SPICE-R3): a confirmatory factor analysis.
The Students' Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education and its revision (SPICE, SPICE-R) were designed to understand medicine and pharmacy students' perceptions of interprofessional education and collaborative practice in managing complex health problems. The SPICE-R authors, however, suggested for additional items for subscales "roles and responsibilities for collaborative care" and "patient outcomes from collaborative practice". We added two items and introduced SPICE-R3 to differentiate it from the 10-item SPICE-R2 and to adapt the scale to a wider range of healthcare members. We administered the SPICE-R3 to healthcare students at the height of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong in February 2020. Using data from 225 students from Chinese medicine, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy, confirmatory factor analysis indicated nine items having acceptable item coefficients. Our data obtained a good fit to the three-factor, nine-item model suggesting construct validity. Results of the between-network analysis suggest that the three subscales of SPICE-R3 correlated systematically with other theoretically relevant variables in the nomological network suggesting convergent validity. The SPICE-R3 is a valid measure to examine Hong Kong healthcare students' interprofessional attitudes in online interprofessional education even during the pandemic. Implications and directions for future research are provided.
Interprofessional education and collaborative practice in Kuwait: attitudes and perceptions of health sciences students.
Interprofessional education (IPE) prepares health students to become collaboration-ready healthcare professionals. Assessing students' baseline attitudes toward IPE and collaborative practice is essential to inform development of IPE curricula. Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (HSC) is early in its IPE journey but is planning to join the broader global movement toward IPE. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the attitudes of HSC students from Faculties of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health Sciences toward collaborative practice and IPE at early and late stages of study. A total of 770 students completed the survey (81.1% response rate). Students expressed positive attitudes toward interprofessional healthcare teams and IPE (median [IQR] overall attitudes were rated 4.0 [1.0] and 4.0 [2.0], respectively, on a scale of 5). Overall attitudes toward both scales were significantly more positive among pharmacy students than students from other faculties (p < .001). Final-year students reported more positive attitudes toward healthcare teams than early- and middle-year students, while early- and final-year students expressed more positive attitudes toward IPE than middle-year students (p < .001). There were no significant differences in overall attitudes between female and male students toward the two scales (p > .05). These findings have implications for engaging students from different professions in IPE initiatives.
ISSUE: Although interprofessional education (IPE) is acknowledged as a way to prepare health professions students for future interprofessional collaboration (IPC), there is a need to better ground IPE-design in learning theory. Landscapes of practice and its concepts of knowledgeability and identification are suggested as a framework that may help optimize IPE. This Observation paper provides an explanation of how these concepts might be used in IPE-design. EVIDENCE: We propose using three modes of identification, i.e., engagement, imagination, and alignment, described in this framework, for an IPE-design that fosters IPC skills, professional identity formation, and knowledgeability about a field and its actors. Identification and knowledgeability are through to enable successful collaboration across professional and practice boundaries. IMPLICATIONS: Focusing on identification implies that students develop a sense of relevance to one another in solving complex problems (engagement), they become aware of their own roles and responsibilities in relation to others (imagination), and they gain awareness of the context in which the different professions align and collaborate (alignment). Altogether, this enables students to become knowledgeable in the landscape, which prepares them for successful interprofessional collaboration in practice.
The purpose of this mixed-method longitudinal study was to understand how health professional students' perceptions of their professional flexibility, role interdependence, and reflection on their process of working together change over time as a result of participating in an interprofessional education course. Data were collected from students enrolled in an interprofessional service-learning course each year from Fall 2014 to 2018 via online surveys at four assessment points and through qualitative reflection papers that served as course assignments. The 14-week course consisted of both didactic instruction and an experiential component whereby students conducted a service-learning activity in interprofessional teams. Quantitative findings demonstrate that students experienced a significant quadratic growth trajectory in reflection on process and a significant linear growth trajectory in professional flexibility. Students reported experiencing non-significant changes in role interdependence. Qualitative data, however, suggest student learning across all three domains. This study has implications for interprofessional educational initiatives aimed at promoting students' interprofessional competencies.
SUMMARY STATEMENT: On-site interprofessional education (IPE) simulation is primarily used to teach students teamwork, communication, and crisis resource management. Participants view it as an educational environment in which to acquire and consolidate skills. Virtual IPE simulation is traditionally seen as an opportunity to supplement, complement, and reinforce on-site IPE (OI). We used VI as the sole simulation method during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide IPE because of constraints of social distancing. The VI resulted in substantially achieving similar learning outcomes to OI. This suggests that VI, which has the advantage of being cheaper and more easily scalable than OI, may be an effective remote learning modality for IPE.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to identify, characterize, and summarize evidence from the published literature on clinical interprofessional education. INTRODUCTION: Clinical interprofessional education refers to learning within clinical learning environments, such as hospitals, primary care clinics, and long-term care facilities. The learning involves direct interaction with real patients, where learners collaborate to deliver care and improve health outcomes. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This scoping review will consider clinical interprofessional education activities in the context of patient care. Criteria include two or more health professions, two or more learner groups, and involvement of real patients/patient care. METHODS: This review will be conducted in accordance with the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. Databases searched will include PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus. Results will be limited to English language publications from 2015 to the present. Extracted data will include the different types of clinical learning environments, the professions involved, the targeted learning/competency outcomes, and the measurement tools used by the authors. Titles/abstracts and full texts of articles will be screened by two reviewers for potential inclusion, with discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer if necessary. Extracted data will be presented in diagrammatic or tabular format. A narrative summary will accompany the tabulated and/or charted results, describing how the results relate to the review objective and research questions, and how the results might inform future clinical interprofessional education in health professions education.
Exploring the Educational Impact of Using a Single-Point Rubric Through Validation in Interprofessional Education.
There have been few studies regarding the impact on inter¬professional education (IPE) assessments and instruments to support learning and teaching. In this study, a single-point rubric was developed and evaluated to explore its educational impact on supporting learning and teaching. The research question was: To what degree does the single-point rubric support student learning and assist facilitators in developing feedback within the context of IPE? We tested the single-point rubric in the assessments within both interprofessional (IP) foundational and elective courses. One hundred eighty-seven rubrics across two IP courses were completed and collected. Of the 49 students and 17 facilitators who responded to the surveys, 3 students and 5 facilitators completed follow-up interviews. Two of the foundational course developers also participated in interviews. Kane's validity framework guided the validation process. Results showed that facilitators used the single-point rubric to provide structured and potentially helpful feedback. Students agreed with the feedback and could efficiently identify the strengths and weaknesses of their performance from the feedback. Students could use the suggestions from facilitators and their own engagement with the feedback to improve future IP learning. However, some facilitators did not provide students with suggestions for improvement, perhaps because they felt that they were not experienced enough to provide suggestions. Additional training is essential for facilitators to learn how to provide suggestions for improvement. The overall educational impact of the single-point rubric is positive, but future investigation with a larger sample size is required.
The Impact of Interprofessional Education and Practice on Medical Scribe Success Working in the Emergency Department.
Medical scribes assist health care providers with medical documentation, thus freeing providers' time for clinical work. In 2015, Grand Valley State University (GVSU) partnered with Helix Scribe Solutions (HSS) to educate medical scribes with classroom and clinical training, including interprofessional education (IPE) created by the Midwest Interprofessional Education and Research Center. This study explored the impact of an academic scribe training program, including the effect of IPE on scribe student perceptions of teamwork and to determine the factor(s) associated with scribe documentation recording accuracy. From August 2016 to October 2018, 196 students consented to participate. Students were asked to complete the Interprofessional Education Perception Scale (IEPS) and Entry Level Interprofessional Questionnaire (ELIQ) tools before and after their educational program. Differences between overall pre- and post-questionnaires were significant (p<0.05). IEPS subscales, Perception of Need for Cooperation, Perception of Actual Cooperation, and Understanding Others' Values were significant (p<0.05). The ELIQ subscale Interprofessional Interaction showed significant positive scoring (p<0.05). Program evaluations showed the curriculum prepared the students to work in emergency department interprofessional teams. Logistic regression modeling indicated that students' grade point average was significant in predicting whether a scribe would have fewer deficiencies per chart on average as scribe employees.
This article discusses the importance of interprofessional education (IPE) programming and provides discussion and student evaluation data on implementation of a virtual IPE COVID-19 patient case study. Represented disciplines included athletic training, clinical psychology, communication sciences and disorders, nursing, nutrition and dietetics, physician assistant, and social work. Faculty committee members from each discipline developed a case study that followed COVID-19 patients in a family and allowed for students to explore cultural considerations within the case. Sixty-four of the 80 students who participated in the event responded to a survey of close-ended and open-ended questions in a predominantly positive manner. Utilizing the experience of this IPE case study and feedback from student participants, we conclude with suggestions for future IPE programming.
Interprofessional Education in Medical-Legal Partnerships (MLPs) to Address Social Determinants of Health.
Medical-legal partnerships (MLP) address legal needs that contribute to health inequities. Health providers express discomfort accessing legal services and a desire for greater training, however best practices remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a scoping literature review and interviews with key informants to identify essential components of MLP training and best practices in MLP training. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles out of an initial 1,247 met criteria. Most learners were medical (11; 52%) or law (13; 62%) students or residents (12; 57%). Training was primarily led by lawyers (18; 86%). Educational approaches included didactics (15; 71%). Content was focused on skill-acquisition (18; 86%). Most training was presented as stand-alone (5; 24%) courses. Essential skills included issuespotting, adaptability, and trauma-informed care. CONCLUSION: Medical-legal partnerships make use of varied perspectives to address unmet legal needs. This review helped identify best practices in training and a need for future study on evaluation. Future research should explore how best to evaluate the effectiveness of MLP training.
A mixed-methods evaluation of interprofessional education in palliative care: changes in student attitudes towards health professions.
Background: Future health care increasingly requires interprofessional thinking and decision-making which should be taught during medical study and vocational training. Against this backdrop, the Medical Faculty at TU Dresden developed an elective course on "Interprofessional Palliative Medicine" in which medical students and trainees in different health professions have been taught together since the 2017 summer semester. An extensive and simultaneous course evaluation conducted in the 2019 summer semester and 2019/20 winter semester investigated if and how strongly attendees' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration had changed as a result of the elective course. Method: The course evaluations included quantitative pre- and post-questions on a questionnaire (n=50) covering, among other things, the perception of roles, according to the Role Perception Questionnaire, and qualitative interviews (n=20). The pre- and post-questions were compared using the Wilcoxon test for related samples and the effect sizes were calculated according to Cohen. The qualitative interviews were analyzed for content using a combined deductive-inductive approach. Results: It was seen that the perceptions and attitudes of each professional group were mutually influenced as a result of the elective course. The quantitative analysis showed the largest effects regarding gains in understanding the roles and competencies of one's own and the other professions (d=0.975) and a reciprocal feeling of "being dependent on each other" (d=0.845). In the interviews, it was seen that medical students developed a greater appreciation for the subject matter and tasks associated with nursing. A strengthening of self-perception was primarily found in the trainees. Conclusion: The elective course on "Interprofessional Palliative Medicine" contributed to the changes in attitude not only with an increased self-awareness of one's own professional group, but also a greater understanding of the roles and expertise of the other health professions. The results speak for the benefit of expanding the interprofessional courses offered.
Impact of interprofessional service-learning on the effectiveness of knowledge transfer of antimicrobial resistance to Hong Kong elders: a quasi-experiment.
BACKGROUND: Community perception on antimicrobials plays a role in driving the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of interprofessional service-learning on the effectiveness of AMR knowledge transfer in Hong Kong elders aged 65 or above and students from university and secondary schools. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest controlled study was carried out from July 2018 to March 2019 for elderly subjects and a pre- and post-test were conducted in students from May to August 2018. Elderly subjects were recruited from the university-based community outreach program. The community outreach team consisted of both university and secondary school students. Students were provided with training of geriatric care and AMR before they reached out to the community. The one-to-one intervention with the aid of video and verbal explanation to educate the elderly about the definition, causes, and consequences of AMR, and preventive measures against AMR was provided. Questionnaires on knowledge of antibiotics and AMR were used as tools to reflect on the effectiveness for both students and elderly subjects. The questionnaire was completed twice, before and 1 week after the intervention. Chi-square test, t tests and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 93 Chinese elders, 61 of them in the intervention group and 32 in the control group participated in the study. The score obtained by the intervention group increased from 40.1 to 83.3% (p < 0.001) following intervention, while that of control group increased from 33.0 to 44.0% (p < 0.001). The increase attained in the intervention group was significantly greater than that of the control group (p < 0.001). A total of 95 secondary students and 88 university students have completed the pre-post questionnaires with 42.21% and 13% increment in AMR knowledge after the training (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The significant change in knowledge level showed effective AMR knowledge transfer to both elders and students. The study could be used as a reference when allocating resources to implement effective interprofessional service-learning for better community health education in elderly populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was approved by the Chinese University of Hong Kong Survey and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee in December 2018 (Ref no. SBRE-18-214).
Developing a Competency Framework of Interprofessional Occupational Health Team: A First Step to Interprofessional Education in Occupational Health Field.
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to develop a competency framework for interprofessional collaboration in an occupational health team. METHODS: This study was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the viewpoints of different stakeholders on the essential competencies of interprofessional team members in occupational health services (OHS) were assessed. In the second stage, extracted codes were converted into competencies in expert panels. After that, the extracted items were categorized by inductive content analysis approach into competency framework. In the third stage, the content validity of interprofessional competencies in OHS was evaluated. RESULTS: The competency framework was finalized in six competency domains including prevention, occupational disease management, occupational health assessments, inter-disciplinary and interprofessional collaboration, education, and evidence-based practice and professionalism. CONCLUSION: The framework could be developed in interprofessional education in OHS based on competency-based education approach.