Día Internacional de las enfermeras y enfermeros 2022

Noticias OBSV-Centroamérica - Dom, 24/04/2022 - 15:17

INVERTIR EN ENFERMERÍA para acelerar la recuperación después de la pandemia, recuperar y mantener los logros en salud pública y retomar el camino hacia la salud universal.

Fecha y hora
  • 6 de mayo de 2022
  • 10 a 12 h EDT

En la celebración del Día Internacional de los enfermeros y enfermeras, la OPS llama a fortalecer colectivamente la fuerza laboral de enfermería mediante la inversión sostenible en la educación, los empleos, el liderazgo, la regulación profesional y las condiciones de trabajo. 

Registro zoom

Acceda aquí

Agenda

Moderadora: Silvia Cassiani, Asesora de Enfermería y Técnicos de Salud, OPS/OMS  

10.00 

Apertura  

Jarbas Barbosa, Subdirector, OPS/OMS 

James Fitzgerald, Director del Departamento de Sistemas y Servicios de Salud, OPS/OMS  

10.15

  

Panel: Inversión en la Fuerza de Trabajo de Enfermería  

Daniel Salinas, Ministro de Salud Pública de Uruguay  

10.30

La importancia estratégica de la inversión en profesionales de enfermería en la Región de las Américas  

Nancy R. Reynolds, Profesora y Decana Asociada de Asuntos Globales, Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad Johns Hopkins, Centro Colaborador de la OPS/OMS para la gestión y el intercambio de conocimientos de enfermería, Estados Unidos de América  

11.00

Experiencia de los países:  

Canadá: Invertir en el personal de enfermería canadiense tras la pandemia  Gail Tomblin, Vicepresidente, Investigación, Innovación y Descubrimiento y Directora Ejecutiva de Enfermería, Nueva Escocia Salud  

Brasil: Salario mínimo de enfermería  Sonia Acioli, Presidente de la Asociación Brasileña de Enfermería (ABEn)  

Jamaica: Desarrollo de la Dirección estratégica en Enfermería y Partería  Patricia Ingram Martin, Jefe de Enfermería, Ministerio de Salud y Bienestar  

11.45

Cierre  

 

Categorías: Noticias Subregionales

A review on One Health approach in Ethiopia

Abstract

The risk of spreading emerging and reemerging diseases has been increasing by the interactions of human – animal – ecosystems and increases account for more than one billion cases, a million deaths and caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage per year in the world. Countries in which their household income is dependent on livestock are characterized by a strong correlation between a high burden of zoonotic disease and poverty. The One Health approach is critical for solutions to prevent, prepare for, and respond to these complex threats. As part of the implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, Ethiopia has embraced the One Health approach to respond to the existing and emerging threats. Several developments have been made to pioneer One Health schemes in Ethiopia which includes establishment of the National One Health Steering Committee and Technical Working Groups, prioritization of zoonotic diseases based on their impact on human and livestock, the development of prevention and control working documents for prioritized zoonotic diseases, joint disease surveillance and outbreak investigation, prioritization of zoonotic diseases, capacity building and other One Health promotions. Nevertheless, there are still so many challenges which need to be addressed. Poor integration among sectors in data sharing and communication, institutionalization of One Health, lack of continuous advocacy among the community, lack of financial funds from the government, limited research fund and activities on One Health, etc. are among many challenges. Hence, it is critical to continue raising awareness of One Health approach and foster leaders to work across disciplines and sectors. Therefore, continuous review on available global and national one health information and achievements to provide compiled information for more understanding is very important.

Categorías: Investigaciones

What characterize high and low achieving teams in Interprofessional education: A self-determination theory perspective.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 21/04/2022 - 05:42
OBJECTIVES: Calls to promote team-based interprofessional collaborative practice in managing patients with complex health problems are ubiquitous. However, the literature remains silent on what characterises successful teams in interprofessional education (IPE) and on profiling successful teams. To help conceptualise successful teams, this study investigated the differences in attitudes and achievement between high- and low-performing teams in an online asynchronous and synchronous IPE programme, and the role of autonomous motivation in determining team membership. METHODS: Using extreme case sampling involving health and social care students, we identified ten high-performing teams and seven low-performing teams based on their team composite scores on three interprofessional collaborative outcomes: team effectiveness, goal achievement, and scores on the readiness assurance test. Each team had five to seven members of diverse backgrounds. Independent t-tests were performed to identify differences in interprofessional collaborative outcomes, namely teamwork and collaboration, patient-centredness, diversity and ethics, community-centeredness, and interprofessional biases for the affective domain and application exercise for the cognitive domain. We employed logistic regression in which autonomous motivation was used to predict group membership. RESULTS: High-performing teams were characterised as those whose members endorsed or valued "teamwork and collaboration" in IPE simulations. Compared with the low-performing groups, they better recognised and endorsed diversity and ethics, patient-centeredness, and community-centeredness. Membership to high- and low-performing teams was linked to autonomous motivation. CONCLUSIONS: High-performing teams have higher favourable valuing of important interprofessional collaborative competencies, and membership to which is predicted by autonomous motivation. The results suggest the need to pay special attention to struggling teams to facilitate desirable collaborative competencies, especially in terms of members' motivation. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are discussed.

Evaluation of an escape room approach to interprofessional education and the opioid crisis.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 21/04/2022 - 05:42
BACKGROUND: The use of an escape room in education helps promote communication, teamwork, and leadership amongst interprofessional learners in a unique and engaging manner; however, it is unknown if this method can change clinical knowledge related to the opioid crisis and interprofessional attitudes. Our objective was to evaluate the use of an interprofessional escape room activity to increase clinical knowledge related to the opioid crisis and to change attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration. INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITY: The session was developed as part of an interprofessional program at University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. In this educational escape room activity, teams of interprofessional students solved six puzzles to gain knowledge of the opioid crisis. Knowledge gains were assessed using a pretest and posttest, while changes in interprofessional attitudes were assessed using the Student Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education-Revised (SPICE-R) instrument. DISCUSSION: Of the 88 total participants, 70 students from six different health professions completed both the pretest and posttest and were included in the analysis. Knowledge of the opioid crisis improved, particularly in identifying signs of opioid overdose. Overall, SPICE-R ratings increased, which was driven by improvement in understanding professional roles and responsibilities. IMPLICATIONS: The use of an interprofessional escape room as an educational method was effective in increasing some aspects of opioid crisis related knowledge and enhancing attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration. The educational model is applicable to various topics and interprofessional groups.

Mapping student perceptions of experiential interprofessional learning to the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competencies.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 21/04/2022 - 05:42
INTRODUCTION: Introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) provide opportunities for interprofessional education (IPE) in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs by facilitating student engagement with other healthcare professionals. It is unknown how well these experiences align with competencies required for interprofessional collaborative practice. This study describes the alignment of student reflections from experiential rotations with the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competencies. METHODS: Following completion of experiential rotations from June 2017 to August 2019, a retrospective analysis of IPE surveys submitted by students was performed to assess types of interprofessional interactions and alignment of student reflections with IPEC competencies. RESULTS: A total of 1360 surveys were analyzed. More than 75% of all PharmD students enrolled in IPPEs or APPEs during the study period completed at least one survey. Across all experiences, survey responses mapped to IPEC competencies at the following rates: Values/Ethics (25%), Roles/Responsibilities (48%), Interprofessional Communication (36%), and Teams/Teamwork (48%). More reflections from inpatient experiences, compared to outpatient experiences, aligned with Roles/Responsibilities and Teams/Teamwork, while fewer inpatient experience reflections aligned with Interprofessional Communication. Active engagement with other health professions increased as students progressed from IPPEs to APPEs. CONCLUSIONS: As PharmD students progress through the experiential curriculum, they engage with IPEC competencies during each professional year. Inpatient and outpatient experiences may highlight different aspects of the IPEC competencies and advanced rotations are more likely to facilitate active engagement with other healthcare professionals.

Pharmacy and medical student interprofessional education placement week.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 21/04/2022 - 05:42
BACKGROUND: Developing collaborative practice through interprofessional education (IPE) activities in undergraduate healthcare curricula is advocated by the World Health Organisation and the regulatory bodies for Medicine and Pharmacy within the UK. APPROACH: Our local faculty, comprising educators from within the Highland Pharmacy Education and Research Centre (HPERC) and Highland Medical Education Centre (HMEC), developed a 5-day IPE placement for pharmacy and medical students on clinical placement within NHS Highland. EVALUATION: We collected qualitative evaluation data using face-to-face focus group discussions with five pharmacy and four medical students (January 2020 cohort). Three key categories and multiple themes within each category were identified from participant narratives: Category 1, overall perception of experience-(themes: better than previous IPE experience; greater exposure to clinical pharmacy); Category 2, student interactions-(themes: learning with a buddy; understanding of interprofessional roles); Category 3, suggestions for improvement-(themes: choice of relevant clinical rotation and content; increase learning from clinical pharmacists; better orientation to placement). Overall, students valued their participation during this week and reported many benefits of learning with students from another profession. Students also highlighted suggestions to improve their learning experience. IMPLICATIONS: This evaluation has indicated students' support for embedding interprofessional placements into their curricula. Clinical educators should consider designing similar placements, while further work should focus on inclusion of higher student numbers and look to include a range of professions and practice settings.

Using modeling and scenario analysis to support evidence-based health workforce strategic planning in Malawi.

BACKGROUND: A well-trained and equitably distributed workforce is critical to a functioning health system. As workforce interventions are costly and time-intensive, investing appropriately in strengthening the health workforce requires an evidence-based approach to target efforts to increase the number of health workers, deploy health workers where they are most needed, and optimize the use of existing health workers. This paper describes the Malawi Ministry of Health (MoH) and collaborators' data-driven approach to designing strategies in the Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan (HRH SP) 2018-2022. METHODS: Three modelling exercises were completed using available data in Malawi. Staff data from districts, central hospitals, and headquarters, and enrollment data from all health training institutions were collected between October 2017 and February 2018. A vacancy analysis was conducted to compare current staffing levels against established posts (the targeted number of positions to be filled, by cadre and work location). A training pipeline model was developed to project the future available workforce, and a demand-based Workforce Optimization Model was used to estimate optimal staffing to meet current levels of service utilization. RESULTS: As of 2017, 55% of established posts were filled, with an average of 1.49 health professional staff per 1000 population, and with substantial variation in the number of staff per population by district. With current levels of health worker training, Malawi is projected to meet its establishment targets in 2030 but will not meet the WHO standard of 4.45 health workers per 1000 population by 2040. A combined intervention reducing attrition, increasing absorption, and doubling training enrollments would allow the establishment to be met by 2023 and the WHO target to be met by 2036. The Workforce Optimization Model shows a gap of 7374 health workers to optimally deliver services at current utilization rates, with the largest gaps among nursing and midwifery officers and pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: Given the time and significant financial investment required to train and deploy health workers, evidence needs to be carefully considered in designing a national HRH SP. The results of these analyses directly informed Malawi's HRH SP 2018-2022 and have subsequently been used in numerous planning processes and investment cases in Malawi. This paper provides a practical methodology for evidence-based HRH strategic planning and highlights the importance of strengthening HRH data systems for improved workforce decision-making.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Educação interprofissional na Atenção Básica: um estudo cartográfico da formação de residentes em Saúde

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 18/04/2022 - 05:49
O artigo objetivou cartografar o processo de educação interprofissional em um Programa de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde da Família. A pesquisa está apoiada nos fundamentos teórico-metodológicos da filosofia da diferença e no método cartográfico. O cenário da pesquisa incluiu Unidades Básicas de Saúde e setores técnicos da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde da capital Maceió. As atividades e os encontros realizados no período de formação, de 2015 a 2017, foram registrados em diários de bordo. A leitura desses registros inspirou a escrita de crônicas-narrativas, procedimento para sistematização das informações, as quais constituíram o corpus do trabalho. A análise resultou nos eixos: movimentos de (des)territorialização; relação formação-trabalho; (trans)formações da Psicologia; e participação e controle social. Considerou-se o corpo o principal dispositivo para educação interprofissional, sugerindo a necessidade de espaços coletivos orientados para análise compartilhada da atenção e da gestão na Atenção Básica. The aim of this study was to map the process of interprofessional education on a multidisciplinary family health residency program. The study draws on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of the philosophy of difference and cartography. The study setting comprised primary care centers and technical sectors in the Maceió City Department of Health. Activities and meetings conducted during the training period (2015 to 2017) were recorded in logbooks. The reading of these records inspired the production of narrative chronicles, a procedure used to systemize information into a corpus of work. The analysis resulted in the following core themes: (de)territorialization movements; training-work relationships; psychological (trans)formations; and public participation. The corpus was considered the main device for interprofessional education, suggesting the need for collective spaces oriented towards the shared analysis of care and the management of primary care. El objetivo del artículo fue cartografiar el proceso de educación interprofesional en un Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud de la Familia. La investigación se apoya en los fundamentos teórico-metodológicos de la filosofía de la diferencia y en el método cartográfico. El escenario de la investigación incluyó Unidades Básicas de Salud y sectores técnicos de la Secretaría Municipal de Salud de la capital Maceió. Las actividades y los encuentros realizados en el período de formación, de 2015 a 2017, se registraron en los diarios de a bordo. La lectura de esos registros inspiró la escritura de crónicas-narrativas, procedimiento para sistematización de las informaciones, que constituyeron el corpus del trabajo. El análisis resultó en los ejes: movimientos de (des)territorialización; relación formación-trabajo; (trans)formaciones de la Psicología; y participación y control social. Se consideró el cuerpo como el principal dispositivo para la educación interprofesional, sugiriendo la necesidad de espacios colectivos orientados hacia el análisis compartido de la atención y de la gestión en la Atención Básica.

Training of teachers in the Health field from the perspective of interprofessional education

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 18/04/2022 - 05:49
ABSTRACT Objectives: to reflect on the training of teachers in the field of health from the perspective of interprofessional education. Methods: an essay based on the dialogue between the scientific literature, the health education inducing policies, and studies in the fields of research and teaching activities in pedagogical projects based on interprofessional education. Results: teaching in health is revealed as a social practice that is built on multiple collaborative movements and training moments. In this sense, the presence of echoes and resonances of the inducing policies necessary for the reorientation of health education in the proposals for teacher development is recognized. Final Considerations: articulating teacher development and interprofessional education demands a dynamic process of expanding and incorporating interprofessional and collaborative practices as a field of study/research and intervention, with a view to strengthening the continuing education of teachers. RESUMEN Objetivos: reflejar sobre la formación de profesores en salud bajo la óptica de la educación interprofesional. Métodos: ensayo fundamentado en el diálogo entre la literatura científica, las políticas inductoras para la formación en salud y estudios en los campos de la investigación y de la actuación docente en proyectos pedagógicos fundamentados en la educación interprofesional. Resultados: la docencia en salud se desvela como práctica social que se construye en múltiples movimientos de colaboración y momentos formativos. En ese sentido, se reconoce la presencia de ecos y resonancias de las políticas inductoras necesarias a la reorientación de la formación en salud en las propuestas de desarrollo docente. Consideraciones Finales: articular el desarrollo docente y la educación interprofesional demanda un proceso dinámico de ampliación e incorporación de prácticas interprofesionales y colaborativas como campo de estudio/investigación y de intervención, en la perspectiva de fortalecer la educación continua de los profesores. RESUMO Objetivos: refletir sobre a formação de professores em saúde sob a ótica da educação interprofissional. Métodos: ensaio fundamentado no diálogo entre a literatura científica, as políticas indutoras para a formação em saúde e estudos nos campos da pesquisa e da atuação docente em projetos pedagógicos fundamentados na educação interprofissional. Resultados: a docência em saúde desvela-se como prática social que se constrói em múltiplos movimentos de colaboração e momentos formativos. Nesse sentido, reconhece-se a presença de ecos e ressonâncias das políticas indutoras necessárias à reorientação da formação em saúde nas propostas de desenvolvimento docente. Considerações Finais: articular o desenvolvimento docente e a educação interprofissional demanda um processo dinâmico de ampliação e incorporação de práticas interprofissionais e colaborativas como campo de estudo/pesquisa e de intervenção, na perspectiva de fortalecer a educação continuada dos professores.

Disponibilidade de acadêmicos de enfermagem para educação interprofissional em saúde

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 18/04/2022 - 05:49
RESUMO Objetivo avaliar a disponibilidade de acadêmicos de enfermagem para a educação interprofissional em saúde. Método estudo realizado com acadêmicos de enfermagem de uma instituição pública de ensino superior do Distrito Federal. Os dados foram coletados no período de março a maio de 2020. Utilizou-se a escala Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale, versão adaptada para a língua portuguesa, composta por três fatores de avaliação. Adicionou-se uma questão aberta ao instrumento. Utilizaram-se duas técnicas de análise. Estatística, operacionalizada pelo software PSPP, e categorial. Protocolo de pesquisa aprovado pelo Comitê de ética em Pesquisa. Resultados os 31 acadêmicos de enfermagem participantes apresentaram disponibilidade satisfatória para a educação interprofissional em saúde, observada nos três fatores avaliados. Obteve-se respostas positivas, com destaque para o item 3(87,1%) do fator 1, e o item 29 (90, 3%) do fator 3. Conclusão a disponibilidade para a educação interprofissional em saúde foi avaliada como satisfatória. RESUMEN Objetivo evaluar la disponibilidad de estudiantes de enfermería para la educación interprofesional en salud. Método estudio realizado con estudiantes de enfermería de una institución pública de educación superior del Distrito Federal. Los datos fueron recolectados de marzo a mayo de 2020. Se utilizó la Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale, una versión adaptada para el idioma portugués, que cuenta con 3 factores de evaluación. Se agregó una pregunta abierta al instrumento. Se utilizaron dos técnicas de análisis. Estadística, operadas por software PSPP, y categórica. Protocolo de investigación aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados los 31 estudiantes de enfermería que participaron presentaron disponibilidad satisfactoria en cuanto a la educación interprofesional en salud, observada en los tres factores evaluados. Se obtuvieron respuestas positivas, con énfasis al ítem 3 (87,1%) del factor 1, y el ítem 29 (90,3%) del factor 3. Conclusión se evaluó la disponibilidad para la educación interprofesional en salud como siendo satisfactoria. ABSTRACT Objective to assess nursing students' readiness for interprofessional health education. Method in this study with nursing students from a public higher education institution in the Federal District, data were collected from March to May 2020, using a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale adapted for Portuguese and consisting of 3 assessment factors. An open question was added to the instrument. The data were analyzed statistically, using PSPP software, and categorically. The research protocol was approved by the research ethics committee. Results by the three factors evaluated, the 31 nursing students displayed satisfactory readiness for interprofessional health education. Positive responses were obtained, particularly on factor 1, item 3 (87.1%), and factor 3, item 29 (90.3%). Conclusion readiness for interprofessional health education was found to be satisfactory.

Using modeling and scenario analysis to support evidence-based health workforce strategic planning in Malawi

Abstract Background

A well-trained and equitably distributed workforce is critical to a functioning health system. As workforce interventions are costly and time-intensive, investing appropriately in strengthening the health workforce requires an evidence-based approach to target efforts to increase the number of health workers, deploy health workers where they are most needed, and optimize the use of existing health workers. This paper describes the Malawi Ministry of Health (MoH) and collaborators’ data-driven approach to designing strategies in the Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan (HRH SP) 2018–2022.

Methods

Three modelling exercises were completed using available data in Malawi. Staff data from districts, central hospitals, and headquarters, and enrollment data from all health training institutions were collected between October 2017 and February 2018. A vacancy analysis was conducted to compare current staffing levels against established posts (the targeted number of positions to be filled, by cadre and work location). A training pipeline model was developed to project the future available workforce, and a demand-based Workforce Optimization Model was used to estimate optimal staffing to meet current levels of service utilization.

Results

As of 2017, 55% of established posts were filled, with an average of 1.49 health professional staff per 1000 population, and with substantial variation in the number of staff per population by district. With current levels of health worker training, Malawi is projected to meet its establishment targets in 2030 but will not meet the WHO standard of 4.45 health workers per 1000 population by 2040. A combined intervention reducing attrition, increasing absorption, and doubling training enrollments would allow the establishment to be met by 2023 and the WHO target to be met by 2036. The Workforce Optimization Model shows a gap of 7374 health workers to optimally deliver services at current utilization rates, with the largest gaps among nursing and midwifery officers and pharmacists.

Conclusions

Given the time and significant financial investment required to train and deploy health workers, evidence needs to be carefully considered in designing a national HRH SP. The results of these analyses directly informed Malawi’s HRH SP 2018–2022 and have subsequently been used in numerous planning processes and investment cases in Malawi. This paper provides a practical methodology for evidence-based HRH strategic planning and highlights the importance of strengthening HRH data systems for improved workforce decision-making.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Insights in interprofessional education: Dental hygiene students' suggestions for collaboration.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 15/04/2022 - 05:45
Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) promotes team-based approaches to professional practice and lifelong collaboration. However, there is little consensus on its "best practice" in dentistry and dental hygiene curricula. This study aimed to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions and experiences of collaboration with dentistry students in an IPE program that authentically represents private practice settings and work processes. The intent was to identify what students thought would best help prepare them to work collaboratively in an oral health team once they graduated after participating in this experience. Methods: Data were collected from 40 dental hygiene student written reflections and 6 dental hygiene students through a focus group session that was audiorecorded and transcribed. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Results: Five interrelated themes emerged: 1) understanding of roles and responsibilities; 2) hierarchical perceptions and level of experience; 3) team dynamics; 4) instructor and staff involvement and support; and 5) timing and structure of IPE activities. The findings suggest that dental hygiene students need consistent and sustained access to realistic environments in which to practise team roles and work directly with dentistry students. Opportunities to build relationships with dentistry students before working together in professional roles appear to alleviate hierarchical concerns that impede teamwork. Conclusion: IPE should occur throughout students' education as hierarchical perceptions appear to influence collaboration. Informal and/or non-clinical IPE opportunities should be introduced early in students' education to develop a foundation for team dynamics in later formal and/or clinical IPE activities. Students should collaborate in ways that will be reflected in professional expectations after graduation; the environment in which they learn their team role should provide the opportunity to authentically practise it. Contexte: La formation interprofessionnelle (FIP) favorise les approches basées sur le travail d'équipe en matière d'exercice professionnel et de collaboration tout au long de la vie. Cependant, il y a peu de consensus quant à ses « meilleures pratiques ¼ lorsqu'il s'agit de programmes de dentisterie et d'hygiène dentaire. La présente étude visait à explorer la perception et les expériences des étudiants en hygiène dentaire en matière de collaboration avec les étudiants en dentisterie dans le cadre d'un programme de FIP qui représente de manière authentique les contextes et les processus de travail en cabinet privé. L'intention était de définir ce qui, selon les étudiants, les préparerait le mieux à travailler en collaboration au sein d'une équipe de soins buccodentaires après avoir obtenu leur diplôme. Méthodologie: Des données ont été recueillies à partir de réflexions écrites par 40 étudiants en hygiène dentaire et de 6 étudiants en hygiène dentaire dans le cadre d'une séance de groupe de discussion audio enregistrée et transcrite. Les données ont été examinées par analyse thématique. Résultats: Cinq thèmes interdépendants ont été dégagés : 1) la compréhension des rôles et des responsabilités; 2) les perceptions hiérarchiques et le niveau d'expérience; 3) la dynamique du travail d'équipe; 4) la participation et le soutien des enseignants et du personnel; et 5) le moment choisi et la structure des activités de FIP. Les résultats suggèrent que les étudiants en hygiène dentaire ont besoin d'un accès constant et soutenu aux environnements réalistes dans lesquels ils peuvent assumer les rôles de l'équipe et travailler directement avec des étudiants en dentisterie. Les possibilités de tisser des liens avec les étudiants en dentisterie avant de travailler ensemble dans des rôles professionnels semblent réduire les préoccupations hiérarchiques qui font obstacle au travail d'équipe. Conclusion: La FIP doit avoir lieu tout au long de la formation des étudiants, puisque les perceptions hiérarchiques semblent influencer la collaboration. Les occasions de FIP informelles ou non cliniques doivent être introduites tôt dans la formation des étudiants afin de créer une fondation de dynamique pour l'équipe lors des activités de FIP formelles ou cliniques ultérieures. Les étudiants doivent collaborer de façons qui seront reflétées dans les attentes professionnelles après l'obtention de leur diplôme. L'environnement dans lequel ils apprennent leur rôle au sein de l'équipe devrait leur fournir l'occasion de l'exercer de manière authentique.

Leveraging interprofessional education to build high functioning teams.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 15/04/2022 - 05:45
As a psychologist, the author says that her role in the integrated primary care team has always been that of the behavioral health provider, serving to promote the holistic health of the patients and families with whom she works as part of the larger integrated team. Central to both Primary Care Behavioral Health and the Collaborative Care model-as well as other models of integration-is that the health care team works to address fragmented care in order to most comprehensively address patient needs. And yet we often focus on training to the model in which behavioral health providers work. As we think about the future of integrated health care workforce development, shouldn't we instead focus on training future health care professionals to develop and lead high functioning teams? As we work toward more comprehensively addressing the holistic needs of marginalized populations, it is becoming increasingly clear that we need to consider how our functions and roles be leveraged across diverse models of integration, team composition, and practice sites, while recognizing that our current educational systems might not yet adequately prepare us to do so. More widespread adoption of interprofessional education (IPE) across the educational life span may serve as one mechanism to enhance interprofessional competencies, though IPE is not without its challenges. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

A Simulação de alta-fidelidade na formação de uma equipa de emergência médica intra-hospitalar

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 15/04/2022 - 05:45
O Departamento para a Qualidade em Saúde da Direção Geral da Saúde, determinou, em junho de 2010 pela Circular Normativa número 15, a criação e implementação de uma Equipa de Emergência Médica Intra-Hospitalar em cada hospital do Serviço Nacional de Saúde, recomendando um programa de melhoria contínua e ressalvando a necessidade de formação contínua da equipa. No norte do país, a Escola de Formação em Emergência de uma Unidade Local de Saúde criou um produto pedagógico destinado à formação dos enfermeiros e médicos, recorrendo à simulação como estratégia pedagógica ­ o EMI-Sim, desenvolvido com a colaboração de uma Escola Superior de Saúde. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar a experiência dos formandos com o curso EMI-Sim e tem como objetivos específicos: avaliar os ganhos percebidos, através da Escala de Ganhos Percebidos com a Simulação de Alta-Fidelidade (EGPSA); avaliar a qualidade do debriefing associado à simulação, através da Escala de Avaliação do Debriefing associado à Simulação (EADaS); avaliar a estruturação dos cenários, e a importância que os participantes lhe atribuem, através da Escala do Design da Simulação (EDS); analisar a associação entre o valor obtido em cada uma das escalas e as variáveis sexo, profissão e experiência anterior em simulação. Desenhámos um estudo transversal descritivo, de natureza quantitativa que contou com a participação de 15 profissionais (7 enfermeiros e 8 médicos), e que decorreu em março de 2021, durante 2 dias (16 horas). Para a recolha de dados utilizámos três escalas validadas (EGPSA, EADaS e EDS). Os dados foram posteriormente tratados com o software IBM® SPSS® Statistics, versão 26. Relativamente aos ganhos percebidos, foram avaliados com valor médio de 4,04 (±0,331) oscilando entre 3,46 e 4,62 numa escala de 1 a 5. Ao debriefing foi atribuído o valor médio de 4,46 ± 0,334, destacando-se o valor afetivo com média de 4,75 ± 0,256. As práticas educativas obtiveram valor médio de 4,55 ± 0,460, a importância atribuída aos itens obteve média de 4,70 ± 0,460, com 75% dos participantes a atribuir importância aos itens da escala. As escalas apresentaram correlação estatisticamente significativa, positiva, de intensidade média entre si, à exceção da sub-escala importância atribuída ao design da simulação que apenas apresenta correlação com a sub-escala práticas educativas. Em suma, os participantes perceberam os ganhos associados à SAF de forma positiva, centrando as suas respostas em melhorei consideravelmente; o debriefing associado à simulação afirmou-se como um elemento fundamental desta estratégia de educação interprofissional aprimorada por simulação; quanto às práticas educativas utilizadas no design da simulação, manifestaram, em termos médios, concordância com as afirmações apresentadas, e constatou-se que essas práticas são muito valorizadas pelos mesmos. Verificou-se a existência de diferença estatisticamente significativa, entre médicos e enfermeiros, no valor atribuído ao debriefing e na avaliação do design da simulação, sendo que os enfermeiros pontuaram com valores superiores nas duas escalas. Os instrumentos utilizados demonstraram, através da análise da consistência interna, boas propriedades psicométricas, com valores de alfa de Cronbach superiores a 0,8, constituindo-se assim como ferramentas adequadas à avaliação contínua do produto pedagógico. Seria pertinente a replicação do estudo numa amostra mais representativa, assim como a inclusão de instrumentos capazes de aferir quais os contributos que advêm da formação interprofissional. The Department for Quality in Health of the Health Coordination, determined, in June 2010 by Normative Circular number 15, the creation and implementation of an In-Hospital Medical Emergency Team in each hospital of the National Health Service recommending a program of continuous improvement and emphasizing the need for continuous training of the team. In the north of the country, the Emergency Training School of a Local Health Unit created a pedagogical product for the training of nurses and doctors, using simulation as a pedagogical strategy ­ the EMI-Sim, developed in collaboration with a Health Superior School. This study aimed to assess the experience of trainees with the EMI-Sim course and has the following specific objectives: evaluate the gains perceived, through the Scale of Perceived Gains from High-Fidelity Simulation (EGPSA); assess the quality of debriefing associated with simulation, through the Simulation Debriefing Assessment Scale (EADaS); assess the structuring of scenarios, and the importance that participants attribute to it, through the Simulation Design Scale (EDS); analyse the association between the value obtained in each of the scales and the variables sex, profession and previous experience in simulation. We designed a cross-sectional descriptive study, of a quantitative nature, with the participation of 15 professionals (7 nurses and 8 doctors), held in March 2021, for 2 days (16 hours). For data collection, we used three validated scales (EGPSA, EDaS and EDS). The data were treated with the IBM® SPSS® Statistics software, version 26. Regarding the perceived gains, these were evaluated with an average value of 4.04 (±0.331) ranging between 3.46 and 4.62 on a scale of 1 to 5. The debriefing was assigned an average value of 4.46 ± 0.334, highlighting if the affective value with an average of 4.75 ± 0.256. The educational practices had a mean value of 4.55 ± 0.460, the importance attributed to the items had an average of 4.70 ± 0.460, with 75% of the participants assigning importance to the items on the scale. The scales showed a statistically significant, positive correlation of medium intensity with each other, except the importance attributed to the simulation design sub-scale, which only presents a correlation with the educational practices sub-scale. The participants perceived the gains associated with the SAF in a positive way, focusing their responses on considerably improved; the debriefing associated with simulation asserted itself as a fundamental element of this simulation-enhanced interprofessional education strategy; for the educational practices used in the simulation design, they expressed, in average terms, agreement with the statements presented, and it was found that these practices are highly valued by them. There was a statistically significant difference between doctors and nurses in the value attributed to the debriefing and in the evaluation of the simulation design, with nurses scoring higher on both scales. The instruments used demonstrated, through the analysis of internal consistency, good psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha values above 0.8, thus constituting adequate tools for the continuous assessment of the pedagogical product. It would be pertinent to replicate the study in a more representative sample, as well as the inclusion of instruments capable of assessing the contributions that come from interprofessional training.

Universal Health Coverage and the Pacific Islands: An Overview of Senior Leaders' Discussions, Challenges, Priorities and Solutions, 2015-2020.

In 1995, Pacific Health Ministers articulated their vision of a healthy Pacific as 'a place where children are nurtured in body and mind; environments invite learning and leisure; people work and age with dignity; where ecological balance is a source of pride; and where the ocean is protected.' Central to this vision is the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC). To provide an indication of the UHC-related priorities of Pacific health authorities and promote alignment of domestic and international investments in health sector development, we thematically analyzed the discussion, resolutions, and recommendations from 5 years (2015-2020) of senior-level Pacific health meetings. Five main themes emerged: (i) the Healthy Islands vision has (and continues to have) a unifying influence on action for UHC; (ii) adoption of appropriate service delivery models that support integrated primary health care at the community level are needed; (iii) human resources for health are critical if efforts to achieve UHC are to be successful; (iv) access to reliable health information is core to health sector improvement; and (v) while not a panacea for all challenges, digital health offers many opportunities. Small and isolated populations, chronic workforce limitations, weak governance arrangements, ageing and inadequate health facilities, and supply chain and logistics difficulties (among other issues) interact to challenge primary health care delivery across the Pacific Islands. We found evidence that the Healthy Islands vision is a tool that garners support for UHC; however, to realize the vision, a realistic understanding of needed political, human resource, and economic investments is required. The significant disruptive effect of COVID-19 and the uncertainty it brings for implementation of the medium- to long-term health development agenda raises concern that progress may stagnate or retreat.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Improving public health sector service delivery in the Free State, South Africa: development of a provincial intervention model.

BACKGROUND: Public health sector service delivery challenges leading to poor population health outcomes have been observed in the Free State province of South Africa for the past decade. A multi-method situation appraisal of the different functional domains revealed serious health system deficiencies and operational defects, notably fragmentation of healthcare programmes and frontline services, as well as challenges related to governance, accountability and human resources for health. It was therefore necessary to develop a system-wide intervention to comprehensively address defects in the operation of the public health system and its major components. METHODS: This study describes the development of the 'Health Systems Governance & Accountability' (HSGA) intervention model by the Free State Department of Health (FSDoH) in collaboration with the community and other stakeholders following a participatory action approach. Documented information collected during routine management processes were reviewed for this paper. Starting in March 2013, the development of the HSGA intervention model and the concomitant application of Kaplan and Norton's (1992) Balanced Scorecard performance measurement tool was informed by the World Health Organization's (2007) conceptual framework for health system strengthening and reform comprised of six health system 'building blocks.' The multiple and overlapping processes and actions to develop the intervention are described according to the four steps in Kaplan et al.'s (2013) systems approach to health systems strengthening: (i) problem identification, (ii) description, (iii) alteration and (iv) implementation. RESULTS: The finalisation of the HSGA intervention model before end-2013 was a prelude to the development of the FSDoH's Strategic Transformation Plan 2015-2030. The HSGA intervention model was used as a tool to implement and integrate the Plan's programmes moving forward with a consistent focus on the six building blocks for health systems strengthening and the all-important linkages between them. CONCLUSION: The model was developed to address fragmentation and improve public health service delivery by the provincial health department. In January 2016, the intervention model became an official departmental policy, meaning that it was approved for implementation, compliance, monitoring and reporting, and became the guiding framework for health systems strengthening and transform in the Free State.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Senior manager leadership competencies for quality residential aged care: an Australian industry perspective

Abstract Background

Documented poor quality and standards of care in Australia’s residential aged care (RAC) sector have highlighted a need to better understand the role of and skills required by, RAC senior management personnel to address these concerns. This study examined which senior management leadership skills and personal qualities are necessary to deliver and strengthen the quality of RAC, with the aim of improving understanding of the professional development needs of leaders in the sector.

Methods

We conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Australian aged care industry experts, including academics, and representatives from the primary health network, consumer, and provider advocate groups. Abductive, thematic analysis incorporated coding derived from existing leadership skills frameworks as well as inductively identified themes.

Results

Identified leadership skills were grouped into five domains including i) workforce development and retention, ii) governance and business acumen; iii) health systems knowledge; iv) stewardship and v) responding to regulatory and political contexts. Skills particularly emphasised by participants were those required to recruit and retain a skilled workforce, manage relationships, and promote a positive organisational culture and employee wellbeing.

Conclusions

RAC senior managers require a complex mix of business, human resource management, and clinical skills to deliver quality care in Australia’s complex RAC setting. The lack of any professional development framework to guide the acquisition or updating of those skills is a concern.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Facilitators and barriers to implementation of integrated community case management of childhood illness: a qualitative case study of Kapiri Mposhi District

Abstract Background

Zambia adopted the Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM) of childhood illness strategy in May 2010, targeting populations in rural communities and hard-to-reach areas. However, evidence suggests that ICCM implementation in local health systems has been suboptimal. This study sought to explore facilitators and barriers to implementation of ICCM in the health system in Kapiri Mposhi District, Zambia.

Methods

Data were gathered through 19 key informant interviews with district health managers, ICCM supervisors, health facility managers, and district health co-operating partners. The study was conducted in Kapiri Mposhi district, Zambia. Interviews were translated and transcribed verbatim. Data were were analyzed using thematic analysis in NVivo 11(QSR International).

Results

Facilitators to implementation of ICCM consisted of community involvement and support for the program, active community case detection and timeliness of health services, the program was not considered a significant shift from other community-based health interventions, district leadership and ownership of the program, availability of national and district-level policies supporting ICCM and engagement of district co-operating partners. Program incompatibility with some socio-cultural and religious cotexts, stock-out of prerequisite drugs and supplies, staff reshuffle and redeployment, inadequate supervision of health facilities, and nonpayment of community health worker incentives inhibited implementation of ICCM.

Conclusion

The study findings highlight key faciliators and barriers that should be considered by policy-makers, district health managers, ICCM supervisors, health facility managers, and co-operating partners, in designing context-specific strategies, to ensure successful implementation of ICCM in local health systems.

Categorías: Investigaciones

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