Uso de la simulación clínica para entrenar equipos en el manejo de conflictos durante los cuidados en salud: una revisión sistemática exploratoria

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - seg, 27/06/2022 - 05:41
Objetivo:Explorar y analizar el uso de la simulación clínica para la formación y/o capacitación de equipos clínicos en el manejo y resolución de conflictos en salud, mediante una revisión sistemática exploratoria.Método:Se realizó una búsqueda con los términos: clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS y DOCUMED. Los límites fueron el uso de la simulación clínica orientado a la formación en el manejo de conflictos en estudiantes o profesionales de la salud, con uso de escenarios clínicos, excluyendo aquellos con más de 20 años. No se consideró excluyente el uso o no de debriefing, ni el uso de simulación junto a otras metodologías. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo.Resultados:Se obtuvieron diez artículos, mayoritariamente cuasi-experimentales, en los cuales la simulación clínica se utiliza prioritariamente de forma interprofesional para la capacitación en manejo de conflictos clínicos, en conjunto con otras metodologías tales como role play, práctica reflexiva y uso de recursos audiovisuales, lo cual sugiere aumentar su efectividad. Se han recreado situaciones como discrepancia en la toma de decisiones y manejo de errores médicos, buscando aplicar competencias de mediación, comunicación y habilidades emocionales, entre otras, seguidas de debriefing. La aplicación de escalas validadas y métodos convencionales revelan un impacto positivo en la satisfacción, percepción y aprendizaje de los participantes, así como en la transferencia y disminución de errores atribuidos a la atención. Objective:To assess and analyze the impact of clinical simulation as a training tool in healthcare teams ability to resolve and manage conflicts, through an exploratory systematic review.Methods:A structured literature review was performed with the terms clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS and DOCUMED. Articles were considered if they involved clinical simulation oriented to training of healthcare professionals or trainees in conflict management, using clinical scenarios, and excluding those studies older than 20 years. Absence of debriefing was not considered an exclusion criterion, neither the use of simulation along with other methodologies. A quantitative analysis was performed.Results:10 articles were retrieved, mostly with quasi-experimental designs, in which clinical simulation was designed as an interprofessional training and was used with multiple other methodologies like roleplay, reflexive practice and audiovisual aids, strategy that suggest an increase its effectivity. Different scenarios have been recreated, like decision-making divergences and management of medical errors, in order to apply the competences of mediation, communication, emotional skills among others, and followed by debriefing. The use of validated scales and conventional assessment methods reveal a positive impact on satisfaction, perception and learning of students, as well as transfer to clinical practice and decrease in errors.

Educación interprofesional y seguridad del paciente: una revisión sistemática

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - seg, 27/06/2022 - 05:41
Introducción: la educación interprofesional (EIP) se define como una iniciativa educativa, formativa o docente que involucra a más de una profesión en el aprendizaje conjunto e interactivo. La formación del recurso humano en salud tiene como desafío plantear soluciones a la escasez de personal sanitario en el mundo y formar profesionales que tengan un desempeño óptimo. Objetivo: caracterizar las publicaciones relacionadas con la implementación de modelos en educación interprofesional y el impacto generado en algunos aspectos relacionados con la seguridad del paciente. Método: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica en Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, LILACS y Google Scholar con siete estrategias de búsqueda garantizando la exhaustividad y reproducibilidad en las fases de la guía PRISMA. Resultados: se incluyeron n = 33 estudios de los cuales n = 19 (57,5%) fueron aplicados en el contexto hospitalario, n = 14 (42,4%) utilizaron metodologías cuasiexperimentales, de estos n = 4 estudios miden desenlaces directos relacionados con la seguridad del paciente, y en los otros n = 29 (87,8%) se encontró una mejora en la comunicación, percepción y conocimiento en los equipos de trabajo. Conclusión: el aprendizaje interprofesional mejora la comunicación y la interacción entre los profesionales de salud. No obstante, es difícil generalizar los resultados debido a la diversidad de metodologías de interacción interprofesional aplicadas en los estudios. Introduction: interprofessional education (IPE) is an educational, training, or teaching initiative involving more than one profession in joint and interactive learning. The challenge of training human resources in health is to propose solutions to the shortage of health personnel globally and to train professionals who have optimal performance. Objective: characterize the publications related to the implementation of interprofessional education models and the impact generated in aspects related to patient safety. Method: a systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, SciElo, LILACS, and Google Scholar with seven search strategies guaranteeing completeness and reproducibility in the phases of the PRISMA guide. Results: n = 33 studies were included, of which n = 19 (57.5%) were applied in the hospital context, n = 14 (42.4%) used quasi-experimental methodologies, of these n = 4 studies measure direct outcomes related to patient safety, and in the other n = 29 (87.8%) an improvement was found in communication, perception, and knowledge in in the work teams. Conclusion: interprofessional learning improves communication and interaction between health professionals. However, it is difficult to generalize the results due to the diversity of interprofessional interaction methodologies applied in the studies. Introdução: a educação interprofissional (EIP) é definida como uma iniciativa educacional, de treinamento ou de ensino que envolve mais de uma profissão na aprendizagem conjunta e interativa. O desafio da formação de recursos humanos em saúde é propor soluções para a carência de pessoal de saúde no mundo e formar profissionais com ótimo desempenho. Objetivo:caracterizar as publicações relacionadas à implantação de modelos na educação interprofissional e o impacto gerado em alguns aspectos relacionados à segurança do paciente. Método: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica no Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, LILACS e Google Scholar com sete estratégias de busca garantindo completude e reprodutibilidade nas fases do guia PRISMA. Resultados: n = 33 estudos foram incluídos, dos quais n = 19 (57,5%) foram aplicados no contexto hospitalar, n = 14 (42,4%) utilizaram metodologias quase-experimentais, destes n = 4 estudos medem resultados diretos relacionados com a segurança do paciente, e nos demais n = 29 (87,8%) houve melhora na comunicação, percepção e conhecimento nas equipes de trabalho. Conclusão: a aprendizagem interprofissional melhora a comunicação e a interação entre os profissionais de saúde. No entanto, é difícil generalizar os resultados devido à diversidade de metodologias de interação interprofssional aplicadas nos estudos

Limitations and Recommendations for Advancing the Occupational Therapy Workforce Research Worldwide: Scoping Review and Content Analysis of the Literature.

Occupational therapy workforce research can help determine whether occupational therapists exist in sufficient supply, are equitably distributed, and meet competency standards. Advancing the value of occupational therapy workforce research requires an understanding of the limitations and recommendations identified by these investigations. This scoping review and content analysis synthesizes the study limitations and recommendations reported by the occupational therapy research worldwide. Two independent reviews included 57 papers from the past 25 years. Stated limitations included: focus on cross-sectional studies with small and convenience samples; participants from single settings or regions; local markets or preferences not specified; focus on self-reported data and intentions (rather than behaviors or occurrences); challenges in aggregating or synthesizing findings from descriptive data; lack of statistical adjustment for testing multiple associations; and the lack of detailed, up-to-date, and accessible workforce data for continuous monitoring and secondary research. Stated recommendations included: strengthening routine workforce data collection; developing longitudinal studies that include interventions (e.g., recruitment or retention packages); developing context-sensitive comparisons; studying the impact on ultimate outcomes; promoting nation-wide, coordinated workforce plans and requirements; and fostering international coalitions for workforce research and developments at scale. These study limitations and recommendations reported by the literature must be considered in the design of a local and global occupational therapy workforce research agenda.
Categorias: Investigaciones

Patient experiences and preferences for antiretroviral therapy service provision: implications for differentiated service delivery in Northwest Ethiopia

Abstract Background

Understanding the experiences, needs, preferences, and behaviors of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are critical to tailor HIV treatment. However, there is limited empirical evidence in Ethiopia on the views of PLHIV regarding their experiences with current antiretroviral therapy (ART) services and preferred models of HIV treatment. Hence, this study aimed to explore the patients’ experiences of taking medications and preferences for ART service provision in Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods

A phenomenological study design was employed. In this study, stable and 18 years old and above PLHIVs, who had been using ART service at four public hospitals and two health centers in East Gojjam, West Gojjam and Awi zones, and Bahir Dar city administration of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, were purposively selected. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted from July 2021 to September 2021 to collect data. ATLAS.ti version 9 software was used for coding translated transcripts. A thematic analysis approach was employed.

Findings

Participants in this study had reported positive and negative experiences in receiving ART services and also varied preferences toward ART service features. The study identified five themes on experiences for ART service and 15 attributes of ART service characteristics. The identified themes were stigma, time, availability of drugs and providers, costs for clinic visits, and provider-patient interaction. The fifteen attributes were buddy system, ART refill (individualized or group), ART packaging and labeling, drug formulation and administration, ART room labeling, distance, location of service, preferences on involvement in treatment decision-making, the person providing ART refills, provider’s attitude, spatial arrangement of ART room, time of health facility operation, time spent at clinics, and total cost of the visit.

Conclusions

The results raise awareness for the positive and negative experiences of patients informing us about barriers and supporting factors in ART service provision. They open up the potential for HIV treatment service improvement. The preferences of PLHIVs toward ART service delivery features were heterogeneous. Policy and program efforts should tailor ART services that suit patients’ needs and priorities in Ethiopia. Future research should further assess the reasons for patients’ distrust of the community ART delivery models.

Categorias: Investigaciones

“Not shifting, but sharing”: stakeholders' perspectives on mental health task-shifting in Indonesia

Abstract Background

Task-shifting, the distribution of tasks among health workers to address health workforce shortage, has been widely used to tackle mental health treatment gaps. However, its implementation in Indonesia has still been rarely explored. This study aimed to explore stakeholders’ perspectives on the implementation of mental health task-shifting to nurses in Indonesia's primary health care.

Methods

An exploratory descriptive approach using in-depth interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) was used. The study involved 19 stakeholders from the government's ministry directorates, professional organisations, and mental health practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.

Results

Three themes emerged namely, task-shifting feasibility and acceptability, shared task implementation, and nurse role enhancement issues, with 14 sub-themes.

Conclusions

Task-shifting on mental health issues in the eye of Indonesian stakeholders is viewed as a matter of sharing and collaboration. Implementation of task-shifting in Indonesia may require policies in place and political will across stakeholders. Further scrutiny on task-shifting implementation is needed by considering the local context and national environment.

Categorias: Investigaciones

‘You say you are a TB doctor, but actually, you do not have any power’: health worker (de)motivation in the context of integrated, hospital-based tuberculosis care in eastern China

Abstract Background

In China, tuberculosis (TB) care, traditionally provided through the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), has been integrated into ‘designated’ public hospitals at County level, with hospital staff taking on delivery of TB services supported by CDC staff. Little is known about the impact of this initiative on the hospital-based health workers who were delegated to manage TB. Drawing on a case study of two TB ‘designated’ hospitals in Zhejiang province, we explored factors influencing hospital-based health workers’ motivation in the context of integrated TB service delivery.

Methods

We conducted 47 in-depth interviews with health officials, TB/hospital managers, clinicians, radiologists, laboratory staff and nurses involved in the integrated model of hospital-based TB care. Thematic analysis was used to develop and refine themes, code the data and assist in interpretation.

Results

Health workers tasked with TB care in ‘designated’ hospitals perceived their professional status to be low, related to their assessment of TB treatment as lacking need for professional skills, their limited opportunities for professional development, and the social stigma surrounding TB. In both sites, the integrated TB clinics were under-staffed: health workers providing TB care reported heavy workloads, and expressed dissatisfaction with a perceived gap in their salaries compared with other clinical staff. In both sites, health workers were concerned about poor infection control and weak risk management assessment systems.

Conclusions

Inadequate attention to workforce issues for TB control in China, specifically the professional status, welfare, and development as well as incentivization of infectious disease control workers has contributed to dissatisfaction and consequently poor motivation to serve TB patients within the integrated model of TB care. It is important to address the failure to motivate health workers and maximize public good-oriented TB service provision through improved government funding and attention to the professional welfare of health workers providing TB care in hospitals.

Categorias: Investigaciones

Work-related factors affecting the retention of medical officers in the preventive health sector in Sri Lanka

Abstract Background

Retention of human resources in the healthcare system, particularly doctors at district level is a great challenge faced by the decentralized health systems in poorly resourced countries. Medical Officers of Health (MOH), medical doctors who provide preventive health services, are a particularly important human resource in the preventive health sector in Sri Lanka. This study explores the relative importance of different factors affecting the retention of MOHs in the preventive health sector of Sri Lanka.

Methods

A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Medical Officers of Health in the Colombo district with 18 MOH Offices with 74 medical officers. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses.

Results

Of the 74 medical officers 64 responded with a response rate of response rate of 86.5%. Regression analysis showed that all four variables; recognition, work schedule, remuneration and responsibility are positively and significantly correlated with retention of Medical Officers of Health in the preventive health sector. The variable ‘work schedule’ showed the highest impact on the retention of Medical Officers of Health.

Conclusions

In order to retain trained Medical Officers of Health in the Sri Lankan preventive health sector, health authorities should address the factors identified in this study. If policymakers fail to address these factors, preventive health services will face negative implications due to the shortage of key service providers.

Categorias: Investigaciones

Assessing the contribution of immigrants to Canada's nursing and health care support occupations: a multi-scalar analysis.

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization adopted the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health Workforce 2030 in May 2016. It sets specific milestones for improving health workforce planning in member countries, such as developing a health workforce registry by 2020 and ensuring workforce self-sufficiency by halving dependency on foreign-trained health professionals. Canada falls short in achieving these milestones due to the absence of such a registry and a poor understanding of immigrants in the health workforce, particularly nursing and healthcare support occupations. This paper provides a multiscale (Canada, Ontario, and Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks) overview of immigrant participation in nursing and health care support occupations, discusses associated enumeration challenges, and the implications for health workforce planning focusing on immigrants. METHODS: Descriptive data analysis was performed on Canadian Institute for Health Information dataset for 2010 to 2020, and 2016 Canadian Census and other relevant data sources. RESULTS: The distribution of nurses in Canada, Ontario, and Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks reveal a growth in Nurse Practitioners and Registered/Licensed Practical Nurses, and contraction in the share of Registered Nurses. Immigrant entry into the profession was primarily through the practical nurse cadre. Mid-sized communities registered the highest growth in the share of internationally educated nurses. Data also pointed towards the underutilization of immigrants in regulated nursing and health occupations. CONCLUSION: Immigrants comprise an important share of Canada's nursing and health care support workforce. Immigrant pathways for entering nursing occupations are complex and difficult to accurately enumerate. This paper recommends the creation of an integrated health workforce dataset, including information about immigrant health workers, for both effective national workforce planning and for assessing Canada's role in global health workforce distribution and utilization.
Categorias: Investigaciones

[Pillars and lines of action for integrated and people- and community-centered health systemsPilares e linhas de ação para sistemas integrados de saúde centrados nas pessoas e nas comunidades].

This paper presents the position of the Latin American working group of the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC). The working group brings together various Latin American actors and organizations in support of actions that facilitate the transformation of health systems in the region towards integrated systems that focus on people not as isolated individuals but as subjects of law in the complex social and environmental contexts where they live and interact. The working group proposes nine pillars of integrated care to be used as a conceptual framework for policy development and changes in practices: 1) shared vision and values; 2) population health; 3) people and communities as partners; 4) resilient communities; 5) capacities of human resources for health; 6) governance and leadership; 7) digital solutions; 8) aligned payment systems; and 9) public transparency. Based on these pillars, lines of work are proposed to strengthen alliances and networks, advocacy, research, and capacity-building, in order to help develop health and social systems that are effectively integrated and focused not only on people but also on communities in Latin America. Este artigo apresenta o posicionamento do grupo de trabalho latino-americano da Fundação Internacional de Cuidados Integrados (1) (IFIC, na sigla em inglês). A IFIC reúne diversos atores e organizações da América Latina com o fim de apoiar ações que facilitem a transformação dos sistemas de saúde na região para sistemas integrados e centrados nas pessoas, não como indivíduos isolados, mas como sujeitos de direito, nos complexos contextos sociais e ambientais em que vivem e participam. O grupo de trabalho propõe nove pilares de atenção integrada a serem utilizados como marco conceitual na elaboração de políticas e de mudanças nas práticas: 1) visão e valores compartilhados, 2) saúde das populações, 3) pessoas e comunidades como parceiros, 4) comunidades resilientes, 5) capacitação de talento humano em saúde, 6) governança e liderança, 7) soluções digitais, 8) sistemas de pagamento alinhados e 9) transparência perante a população. Com base nesses pilares, são propostas linhas de trabalho nas áreas de fortalecimento de alianças e redes, incidência política, pesquisa e capacitação, que contribuam para materializar na América Latina sistemas sociais e de saúde efetivamente integrados e centrados não só nas pessoas, como também nas comunidades.
Categorias: Investigaciones

[Implementation of the plan of action for human resources for health and the COVID-19 pandemic responseImplementação do plano de ação sobre recursos humanos para a saúde e a resposta à pandemia de COVID-19].

Objectives: Systematize and analyze the response actions related to human resources for health during the pandemic, reported by 20 countries of the Region of the Americas in the mid-term evaluation of the Plan of Action on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage 2018-2023 (Pan American Health Organization, 2018), and assess the importance of the policies on human resources for health (HRH) and on HRH management expressed in the Plan of Action and in the Strategy on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage during health emergencies and in normal times. Methods: Reports on actions taken in 20 countries of the Region against COVID-19 and for HRH were selected and systematized. These were classified as immediate contingency actions, actions related to installed capacities, and emerging actions. Results: The capacity to plan and manage HRH in countries depends on their installed, functional structures and competencies. The pandemic highlighted the need to have new job profiles, improve precarious working and contractual conditions, emphasize the gender perspective, and address numerical gaps in certain areas and levels of care. Conclusions: Linking the monitoring of the Plan of Action with the COVID-19 response demonstrated the importance of HRH governance, management, and installed capacities when responding to health emergencies and in normal times. The analysis suggests a need to review existing public policies, models of care that can guide current and future needs in HRH, the profiles required, working conditions, and ways to close numerical gaps, among other issues. The pandemic enabled countries to innovate in response to demands. The Strategy and the Plan of Action remain in place to guide and strengthen the performance of human resources for health. Objetivos: Sistematizar e analisar as ações de resposta relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde durante a pandemia, relatadas por 20 países da Região das Américas na avaliação intermediária do Plano de ação sobre recursos humanos para o acesso universal à saúde e a cobertura universal de saúde 2018-2023 (Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, 2018), e avaliar a importância das políticas e da gestão de recursos humanos expressas na estratégia e no plano durante emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. Métodos: Foram selecionados e sistematizados relatórios sobre ações contra a COVID-19 e recursos humanos para a saúde de 20 países da Região. As ações foram classificadas em ações imediatas de contingência, ações relacionadas às capacidades instaladas e ações emergentes. Resultados: As capacidades de planejamento e gestão de recursos humanos para a saúde nos países dependem das estruturas e das competências instaladas e funcionais. A pandemia tornou visível a necessidade de ter novos perfis de trabalho, melhorar as precárias condições de trabalho e contratuais, tornar visível a perspectiva de gênero e solucionar lacunas numéricas em determinadas áreas e níveis de atenção. Conclusões: A vinculação das ações contra a COVID-19 com o monitoramento do plano demonstrou a importância da governança, da gestão e das capacidades instaladas relacionadas aos recursos humanos para a saúde, para responder a emergências de saúde e em tempos normais. A análise convida à revisão das políticas públicas existentes, dos modelos de atenção necessários para orientar as necessidades atuais e futuras dos recursos humanos para a saúde, os perfis exigidos, as condições de trabalho e a cobertura das lacunas numéricas existentes, entre outras questões. A pandemia permitiu inovações nos países para responder à demanda. A estratégia e o plano continuam vigentes para orientar e fortalecer o desempenho dos recursos humanos para a saúde.
Categorias: Investigaciones

Lessons learned from the history of postgraduate medical training in Japan: from disease-centred care to patient-centred care in an aging society.

BACKGROUND: Health workers, the core of health service delivery and a key driver of progress towards universal health coverage, must be available in sufficient numbers and distributed fairly to serve the entire population. In addition, the planning and management of the health workforce must be responsive to the changing needs of society, including changes in age structure and epidemiology. Considering these issues, this paper examines in historical perspective the evolution of postgraduate medical training and practice in Japan, from the late nineteenth century to the present. MAIN TEXT: When the first medical schools were established in the country towards the end of the nineteenth century, Japan was a largely agrarian society, with a population of about 30 million and an average life expectancy of 30-40 years. During the twentieth century, life expectancy and the national population continued to increase in a context of rapid economic growth. Since the 1980s, another demographic transition has occurred: low fertility rates and an aging society. As a result, the inputs and skills required from health professionals have changed considerably over time, posing new challenges to the national health sector and the management of human resources for health. CONCLUSIONS: The case of Japan offers valuable lessons for other countries experiencing a rapid epidemiological and demographic transition. To provide medical care that meets health priorities in the communities, we must consider not only the training of specialists, but also ensure the availability of a large cadre of physicians who possess basic skills and can provide patient-centred care. Furthermore, the Japanese experience shows that a highly hierarchical system and organisational culture are ill-suited to respond quickly to the changing demands of society.
Categorias: Investigaciones

Uso de la simulación clínica para entrenar equipos en el manejo de conflictos durante los cuidados en salud: una revisión sistemática exploratoria

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Objetivo:Explorar y analizar el uso de la simulación clínica para la formación y/o capacitación de equipos clínicos en el manejo y resolución de conflictos en salud, mediante una revisión sistemática exploratoria.Método:Se realizó una búsqueda con los términos: clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS y DOCUMED. Los límites fueron el uso de la simulación clínica orientado a la formación en el manejo de conflictos en estudiantes o profesionales de la salud, con uso de escenarios clínicos, excluyendo aquellos con más de 20 años. No se consideró excluyente el uso o no de debriefing, ni el uso de simulación junto a otras metodologías. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo.Resultados:Se obtuvieron diez artículos, mayoritariamente cuasi-experimentales, en los cuales la simulación clínica se utiliza prioritariamente de forma interprofesional para la capacitación en manejo de conflictos clínicos, en conjunto con otras metodologías tales como role play, práctica reflexiva y uso de recursos audiovisuales, lo cual sugiere aumentar su efectividad. Se han recreado situaciones como discrepancia en la toma de decisiones y manejo de errores médicos, buscando aplicar competencias de mediación, comunicación y habilidades emocionales, entre otras, seguidas de debriefing. La aplicación de escalas validadas y métodos convencionales revelan un impacto positivo en la satisfacción, percepción y aprendizaje de los participantes, así como en la transferencia y disminución de errores atribuidos a la atención. Objective:To assess and analyze the impact of clinical simulation as a training tool in healthcare teams ability to resolve and manage conflicts, through an exploratory systematic review.Methods:A structured literature review was performed with the terms clinical simulation OR patientsimulation OR simulation training OR high fidelity simulation training AND conflict OR conflict resolution in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, Scielo, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, MEDES, IBECS and DOCUMED. Articles were considered if they involved clinical simulation oriented to training of healthcare professionals or trainees in conflict management, using clinical scenarios, and excluding those studies older than 20 years. Absence of debriefing was not considered an exclusion criterion, neither the use of simulation along with other methodologies. A quantitative analysis was performed.Results:10 articles were retrieved, mostly with quasi-experimental designs, in which clinical simulation was designed as an interprofessional training and was used with multiple other methodologies like roleplay, reflexive practice and audiovisual aids, strategy that suggest an increase its effectivity. Different scenarios have been recreated, like decision-making divergences and management of medical errors, in order to apply the competences of mediation, communication, emotional skills among others, and followed by debriefing. The use of validated scales and conventional assessment methods reveal a positive impact on satisfaction, perception and learning of students, as well as transfer to clinical practice and decrease in errors.

Appraisal of the entrustable professional activities interprofessional team member domain performed by North Dakota pharmacists

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of the interprofessional team member (ITM) domain of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) by North Dakota pharmacists across practice sites, roles in practice, and by preceptor status. METHODS: Survey methods were used to characterize the self-reported frequency with which pharmacists undertake core EPAs and supporting tasks in the ITM domain. The survey was administered to registered pharmacists practicing in North Dakota (n=990) during the fall of 2018, of which 457 (46.1%) responded. After eliminating responses with incomplete or missing information, 119 responses were available for analysis. RESULTS: For the overall EPA ITM domain, "Collaborate as a member of an interprofessional team population" pharmacists reported performing these activities an average (mean) of 3.3 times per month (SD=2.3). Within this domain, the highest reported example activity was "Use setting appropriate communication skills when interacting with others" (mean=4.1, SD 1.8), followed by "Communicate a patient's medication-related problem(s) to another health professional" (mean=3.3, SD 2.0), and "Contribute medication-related expertise to the team's work" (mean=3.1, SD=2.2). ITM domain and supporting example activities were performed at a greater rate in hospitals, community health centers and long-term-care facilities. For most items, preceptors reported a greater use of activities, than did non-preceptors. CONCLUSIONS: North Dakota pharmacists currently complete tasks outlined in the ITM domain of the EPAs, although their contributions are varied by task, role, and preceptor status No disponible

Disposição para colaboração interprofissional de estudantes de graduação

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Objetivo: Analisar a Disposição para a colaboração interprofissional de estudantes de graduação. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado com 82 estudantes de dez cursos de graduação de uma universidade pública. A intenção para a colaboração interprofissional foi verificada através da Escala Jefferson de Atitudes Relacionadas à Colaboração Interprofissional. Resultados: A amostra foi composta na sua maioria por indivíduos do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 20 anos, entre o 2º e 4º semestre da graduação. O escore médio da escala utilizada foi de 129,3 pontos. Conclusão: No âmbito da educação, principalmente de nível superior, muitas iniciativas de ensinoaprendizagem são realizadas de forma coletiva, o que favorece a percepção positiva para o trabalho coletivo. A disposição para a colaboração interprofissional dos estudantes apresentou alto escore; não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os diferentes cursos de graduação, sexo e a fase de formação(AU) Objective: To analyze the willingness for interprofessional collaboration of undergraduate students. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out with 82 students from ten undergraduate courses at a public university. The intention for interprofessional collaboration was verified through the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Related to Interprofessional Collaboration. Results: The sample was composed mostly of female individuals, in the age group of 20 years, between the 2nd and 4th semester of graduation. The average score of the scale used was 129.3 points. Conclusion: In the scope of education, mainly at higher education level, many teaching - learning initiatives are carried out collectively, which favors a positive perception for collective work. The willingness for interprofessional collaboration of students presented a high score; there was no statistically significant difference between the different undergraduate courses, sex and the training phase.(AU) Objetivo: Analizar la voluntad de colaboración interprofesional de estudiantes de graduación. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, realizado con 82 estudiantes de diez carreras de pregrado de una universidad pública. La intención de colaboración interprofesional se verificó a través de la Escala de actitudes de Jefferson relacionadas con la colaboración interprofesional. Resultados: La muestra estuvo compuesta mayoritariamente por individuos del sexo femenino, en el grupo de edad de 20 años, entre el 2º y 4º semestre de egreso. La puntuación media de la escala utilizada fue de 129,3 puntos. Conclusión: En el ámbito de la educación, principalmente a nivel de educación superior, muchas iniciativas de enseñanza-aprendizaje se llevan a cabo de forma colectiva, lo que favorece una percepción positiva del trabajo colectivo. La disposición a la colaboración interprofesional de los estudiantes presentó una puntuación alta; no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los diferentes cursos de pregrado, sexo y la fase de formación(AU)

Formação docente para o ensino da educação interprofissional

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
RESUMO Objetivo: relatar experiências das autoras em relação à formação docente para o ensino da Educação Interprofissional. Desenvolvimento: relato de experiência a partir da observação direta das atividades de docentes de duas universidades públicas do estado da Bahia, entre 2014 e 2019. Os dados foram registrados em diário de campo, organizados por aproximação temática e analisados em suas partes e nas relações entre a formação docente e o ensino da Educação Interprofissional. Identificou-se três dimensões: inquietações e reflexões nos campos práticos; movimento de aproximação ao ensino da Educação Interprofissional; e movimento na pós-graduação. Conclusão: as experiências vividas na formação docente contribuíram para o ensino, tendo em vista a Educação Interprofissional, por suscitarem reflexões sobre os movimentos formativos do docente em direção à interprofissionalidade e constatações acerca das possibilidades formativas do docente. Espera-se que tais experiências sejam continuadas e aplicadas nos diferentes espaços de ensino RESUMEN Objetivo: relatar experiencias de las autoras en lo que se refiere a la formación docente para la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional. Desarrollo: relato de experiencia a partir de la observación directa de las actividades de docentes de dos universidades públicas del estado de Bahía, entre 2014 y 2019. Los datos se registraron en un diario de campo, se organizaron por enfoque temático y se analizaron en sus partes y en las relaciones entre la formación docente y la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional. Se identificaron tres dimensiones: preocupaciones y reflexiones en los ámbitos prácticos; movimiento para abordar la enseñanza de la Educación Interprofesional; y movimiento en la formación de postgrado. Conclusión: las experiencias vividas en la formación docente han contribuido a la enseñanza, con vistas a la Educación Interprofesional, haciendo suscitar reflexiones sobre los movimientos formativos del docente hacia la interprofesionalidad y hallazgos sobre las posibilidades formativas del docente. Se espera que estas experiencias tengan continuidad y se apliquen en los diferentes espacios de enseñanza. ABSTRACT Objective: To report the authors' experiences regarding the training of faculty members for Interprofessional Education teaching. Development: Experience report using direct observation of the activities of professors from two public universities in the state of Bahia, between 2014 and 2019. The data were recorded in a field diary, organized by thematic approach and analyzed in its parts and in the relationships between the training of faculty members and the teaching of Interprofessional Education. Three dimensions were identified: concerns and reflections in practical activities; movement towards the teaching of Interprofessional Education; and movement in postgraduate health education. Conclusion: The experiences in the training of faculty members contributed to teaching, regarding Interprofessional Education, by raising reflections on the movements for training faculty members for interprofessional education and findings on the possibilities of the training of professors. We expect that these initiatives are implemented on a permanent basis and in different teaching spaces.

O PET-Saúde Interprofissionalidade e as ações em tempos de pandemia: perspectivas docentes

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
O Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para Saúde (PET-Saúde) é uma política indutora que fomenta o aprendizado por vivências problematizadoras nos locais de trabalho em saúde com foco na interprofissionalidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi relatar a experiência do PET-Saúde Interprofissionalidade durante a pandemia de Covid-19, na perspectiva docente. Desenvolver o PET-Saúde com estudantes, preceptores, equipes dos serviços e usuários demandou (re)descobrir possibilidades das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e o aprendizado da produção de "novas presenças" sem desistir da ação coletiva, participativa e composta pelos diferentes saberes. Apreendeu-se o desenvolvimento de competências como escuta qualificada para resolução de conflitos, comunicação interprofissional e liderança colaborativa. Este PET-Saúde mostrou-se um disparador na formação em saúde, conectando universidade, rede de saúde e comunidade; e contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de competências colaborativas e um espaço de acolhimento para as situações vivenciadas.(AU) El Programa de Educación por el Trabajo para Salud (PET-Saúde) es una política inductora que fomenta el aprendizaje por vivencias problematizadoras en los locales de trabajo en salud con enfoque en la Interprofesionalidad. El objetivo fue relatar la experiencia del PET-Saúde Interprofesionalidad durante la pandemia de Covid-19, desde la perspectiva docente. Desarrollar el PET-Saúde con estudiantes, preceptores, equipos de los servicios y usuarios demandó (re)descubrir posibilidades de las tecnologías de información y comunicación, aprendiendo a producir "nuevas presencias", sin desistir de la acción colectiva, participativa, compuesta por los diferentes saberes. Se aprendió a desarrollar competencias tales como escuchar de forma calificada para la resolución de conflictos, la comunicación interprofesional y el liderazgo colaborativo. Este PET-Saúde se mostró un gatillo en la formación en salud, conectando universidad, red de salud y comunidad, contribuyendo al desarrollo de competencias colaborativas y un espacio de acogida para las situaciones vividas.(AU) The Program 'Education through Work for Health' (PET-Health) is a nudging policy that provides learning through problematizing experiences in health workplaces, with a focus on interprofessionality. The aim was to report the experience of PET-Health Interprofessionality during the Covid-19 pandemic, from the teachers' perspective. The development of PET-Health with students, tutors, teams from the health system and users demanded, (re) discovering possibilities of information and communication technologies, learning to produce "new presences", without giving up the collective, participatory action, composed by different knowledge. There was learning of development of skills such as qualified listening for conflict resolution, interprofessional communication and collaborative leadership. This PET-Health proved to be a triggering event towards health education, connecting university, health network and community, and contributed to the development of collaborative skills and constituted a welcoming space for the situations experienced.(AU)

Aprendizaje interprofesional en los internados de las carreras de la salud del Hospital Josefina Martínez

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - ter, 21/06/2022 - 16:36
Introducción: las dinámicas de atención en salud requieren que los profesionales que componen el equipo de salud trabajen en for-ma colaborativa. Sin embargo, durante su formación, las oportunidades de aprendizaje con otras disciplinas son escasas. Se reportan los resultados del primer proyecto para promover el aprendizaje interprofesional en los internos que rotan por el Hospital Josefina Martínez. Método: de marzo a julio 2018, se realizó un taller constituido por dos sesiones, en cada rotación de internado. Participaron internos de cinco carreras en forma conjunta (kinesiología, odontología, nutrición, fonoaudiología y terapia ocupacional). Se adaptó la encuesta de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, para ser aplicada antes y después de cada taller. Se calcularon las medianas, rangos intercuartílicos (Q1; Q3y se compararon los puntajes mediante test de Wilcoxon. Resultados: hubo una disposición positiva inicial al aprendizaje interprofesional, con mejoría significativa después de los talleres en todas las dimensiones de la encuesta: Trabajo en equipo y colaboración (<0,001), trabajo centrado en el paciente (<0,001), y sentido de identidad profesional (<0,05). La diferencia del puntaje global de la encuesta también fue significativa (<0,001). Conclusiones: se demostró un cambio favorable y significativo en las respuestas de los internos después de los talleres, en todas las dimensiones de la encuesta. En los comentarios, destacaron la relevancia de aprender con estudiantes de otras carreras, describiendo que aumentó su conocimiento sobre éstas y reforzando el impacto que dicha integración tiene en mejorar la atención y resolución de problemas en salud. Background: The dynamics of health care require that the health professionals work collaboratively; however, during their training, learning opportunities with other disciplines are infrequent. The results of the first project to promote interprofessional learning in the clinical internship at Hospital Josefina Martínez are reported. Methods: From March to July 2018, two workshops for each internship rotation were carried. Students from fivecareers participated together (Kinesiology, Dentistry, Nutrition, Speech Therapy, and Occupa-tional Therapy). The readiness to interprofessional scale survey was adapted, to be applied before and after each workshop. Medians, interquartile range (Q1; Q3) were calculated, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results. Results: There was an initial po-sitive readiness for interprofessional learning, with a significant improvement in all the dimensions of the survey, after the workshops: Teamwork and collaboration (<.001), patient-centered care (<.001), and sense of professional identity (<.05). The differences from the overall survey were also significant (<0.001). Conclusions: A favorable change was demonstrated in the responses of the students after the workshops, overalland in all the dimensions of the survey. In the comments, the students highlighted the relevance of learning with students from other careers, describing that it increased their knowledge about different professions and strengthening the impact that this integration has in improving attention and resolving health problems.

Community Health Workers and Stigma Associated with Mental Illness: An Integrative Literature Review

Abstract

Community health workers (CHWs) are facilitators between health services and service users, providing essential and effective support to those seeking health care. However, stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness also exist among CHWs and are based on prejudicial and biasedopinions. This integrative review critically assessed evidence regarding CHWs approaches for addressing mental health issues. In total, 19 studies were included in this review. The results revealed that CHWs have limited knowledge about mental illness and also stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness or substance use problems. Despite feeling unprepared, CHWs are favorable resources for mental health care and can contribute to reducing stigma due to the similarities they share with the communities that they serve. Task-sharing between health professionals and CHWs is an important strategy to improve access to health services and reducing stigma towards people with mental illness, provided that receive adequate training to perform the duties.

Categorias: Investigaciones

The impact of training on self-reported performance in reproductive, maternal, and newborn health service delivery among healthcare workers in Tanzania: a baseline- and endline-survey

Abstract Background

Delivery of quality reproductive health services has been documented to depend on the availability of healthcare workers who are adequately supported with appropriate training. However, unmet training needs among healthcare workers in reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) in low-income countries remain disproportionately high. This study investigated the effectiveness of training with onsite clinical mentorship towards self-reported performance in RMNH among healthcare workers in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

Methods

The study used a quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-intervention evaluation strategy. The baseline was compared with two endline groups: those with intervention (training and onsite mentorship) and those without. The differences among the three groups in the sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed by using chi-square test for categorical variables, independent-sample t-test for continuous variables and Mann–Whitney U test for ordinal or skewed continuous data. The independent sample t-test was used to determine the effect of the intervention by comparing the computed self-reported performance on RMNH services between the intervention and control groups. The paired-samples t-test was used to measure the differences between before and after intervention groups. Significance was set at a 95% confidence interval with p ≤ 0.05.

Results

The study included a sample of 216 participants with before and after intervention groups comprising of 95 (44.0%) and 121 (56.0%) in the control group. The comparison between before and after intervention groups revealed a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in all the dimensions of the self-reported performance scores. However, the comparison between intervention groups and controls indicated a statistical significant difference on intra-operative care (t = 3.10, df = 216, p = 0.002), leadership skills (t = 1.85, df = 216, p = 0.050), Comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care (CEMONC) (t = 34.35, df = 216, p ≤ 0.001), and overall self-reported performance in RMNH (t = 3.15, df = 216, p = 0.002).

Conclusions

This study revealed that the training and onsite clinical mentorship to have significant positive changes in self-reported performance in a wide range of RMNH services especially on intra-operative care, leadership skills and CEMONC. However, further studies with rigorous designs are warranted to evaluate the long-term effect of such training programs on RMNH outcomes.

Categorias: Investigaciones

Lessons learned from the history of postgraduate medical training in Japan: from disease-centred care to patient-centred care in an aging society

Abstract Background

Health workers, the core of health service delivery and a key driver of progress towards universal health coverage, must be available in sufficient numbers and distributed fairly to serve the entire population. In addition, the planning and management of the health workforce must be responsive to the changing needs of society, including changes in age structure and epidemiology. Considering these issues, this paper examines in historical perspective the evolution of postgraduate medical training and practice in Japan, from the late nineteenth century to the present.

Main text

When the first medical schools were established in the country towards the end of the nineteenth century, Japan was a largely agrarian society, with a population of about 30 million and an average life expectancy of 30–40 years. During the twentieth century, life expectancy and the national population continued to increase in a context of rapid economic growth. Since the 1980s, another demographic transition has occurred: low fertility rates and an aging society. As a result, the inputs and skills required from health professionals have changed considerably over time, posing new challenges to the national health sector and the management of human resources for health.

Conclusions

The case of Japan offers valuable lessons for other countries experiencing a rapid epidemiological and demographic transition. To provide medical care that meets health priorities in the communities, we must consider not only the training of specialists, but also ensure the availability of a large cadre of physicians who possess basic skills and can provide patient-centred care. Furthermore, the Japanese experience shows that a highly hierarchical system and organisational culture are ill-suited to respond quickly to the changing demands of society.

Categorias: Investigaciones

Páginas